Human Genetic Modification

Human genetic modification is the direct manipulation of the genome using molecular engineering techniques. Recently developed techniques for modifying genes are often called “gene editing.” Genetic modification can be applied in two very different ways: “somatic genetic modification” and “germline genetic modification.”

Somatic genetic modification adds, cuts, or changes the genes in some of the cells of an existing person, typically to alleviate a medical condition. These gene therapy techniques are approaching clinical practice, but only for a few conditions, and at a very high cost.

Germline genetic modification would change the genes in eggs, sperm, or early embryos. Often referred to as “inheritable genetic modification” or “gene editing for reproduction,” these alterations would appear in every cell of the person who developed from that gamete or embryo, and also in all subsequent generations. Germline modification has not been tried in humans, but it would be, by far, the most consequential type of genetic modification. If used for enhancement purposes, it could open the door to a new market-based form of eugenics. Human germline modification has been prohibited by law in more than 40 countries, and by a binding international treaty of the Council of Europe.


Op-Ed

Despite the appearance of agreement, scientists are not of the same mind about the ethics and governance of human germline editing. A careful review of public comments and published commentaries in top-tier science journals reveals marked differences in perspective. These...

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Scientists quickly condemned the Chinese researcher who altered the DNA of at least two embryos to create the world’s first genetically edited babies, defying a broad consensus against hereditary tinkering.

But as The Times reported last week, the global scientific community is...

White text "What is Gene Editing" on a teal background with a section of DNA
Internal Content

Gene editing is a way of making changes to specific parts of a genome. Scientists have been able to alter...

Op-Ed

The fierce global controversy over whether to alter the genes of future children and generations just got fiercer. On the...

Photo of He Jiankui in a lab

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DNA inside a syringe on a blue background.

Op-Ed

Blue double helix DNA strand on dark blue background

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A macro photo of human cells.

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Person coming out of double helix DNA strand

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J. Benjamin Hurlbut

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United Nations logo in black.

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