In comparison to many other nations, the U.S. has few federal laws specifically addressing human genetic technologies. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA), which prohibits the use of individuals’ genetic information in employment and health insurance, is an exception. Similarly, while many countries have established legislation about aspects of assisted reproduction, the only federal U.S. law is the 1992 Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act, which requires fertility clinics to report standardized success rate data to the Centers for Disease Control.
Unlike dozens of other countries with advanced biotech sectors, the U.S. has no federal laws regulating human reproductive cloning or inheritable genetic modification. However, the FDA has asserted authority over practices including human reproductive cloning, “three-person IVF,” and inheritable genetic modification; the National Institutes of Health makes decisions about research funding; and Congress has exerted some control over research involving human embryos through budget riders.