Temilola Akinbolagbe, 33, from Plumstead, south London, collapsed at a bus stop after developing Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS).
The potentially fatal form of the condition affects about one per cent of women undergoing IVF, although a less severe form is more common.
Experts believe this was the first such death from OHSS in the UK.
Mild and moderate forms of OHSS have been reported to affect up to 20% of women undergoing ovarian induction, which mimics the production of normal hormones.
It is believed there have been three other deaths from the condition in the last 30 years.
Mrs Akinbolagbe, from Plumstead, south London, started to feel ill after receiving fertility treatment.
She was taken to hospital immediately, but suffered a massive heart attack.
Mrs Akinbolagbe's life support machine was turned off five days later.
Her husband, Samuel Ifaturoti, said his wife had been "very positive" about the fertility treatment.
'Not a particular risk'
Gynaecologist John Parsons said staff at Kings College Hospital, where she had received her fertility treatment, were all shocked by Mrs Akinbolagbe's death.
He said: "We... see more