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About Surrogacy

Surrogacy is an arrangement in which a woman carries and delivers a child for another couple or person. Most commonly, the surrogate is impregnated with an embryo created with the egg of another woman. This is termed "gestational surrogacy." In "traditional surrogacy," the surrogate is also the child's genetic mother.

Surrogacy is often used to allow women who are unable to carry a child, but whose eggs are viable, to have a child genetically related to both her and her partner. In other cases, "intended parents" including gay couples use surrogates and third-party eggs to create a child genetically related to one member of the couple.

Some surrogacy arrangements involve no financial considerations between the parties involved, or compensate the surrogate only for expenses and, perhaps, lost wages involved with carrying the child. Increasingly, however, surrogacy is a commercial arrangement.

A number of countries and U.S. states prohibit commercial surrogacy arrangements, or limit compensation to expenses and lost wages. Others have no regulations and market-like conditions prevail.

In the U.S., costs for surrogacy are upwards of $100,000. This has led to the practice known as "reproductive tourism," in which prospective parents travel to avoid regulations or to save money. Some people seeking surrogates, especially Europeans, come to the U.S., but even more go to less developed regions where fertility practices are loosely regulated, if at all. India, perhaps the world's number one hub for cross-border medical treatment, has a reproductive tourism market with revenues estimated to be over half a billion dollars.

Industry supporters often defend this practice saying that women in developing countries can earn many times a normal salary by being a surrogate. However, women's health and human rights advocates and scholars raise serious concerns about how these arrangements take advantage of socially marginalized women, compromising their health and reproductive autonomy to make a profit. Some surrogate brokers, for example, routinely perform C-sections on all of their surrogates so that hiring parents can schedule to be present for the delivery. There have been several scandals involving the exploitation of surrogate mothers or fraud committed by brokers on would-be parents.

There may be legal issues after the birth of a child to a foreign surrogate. Questions of citizenship remain unresolved in several jurisdictions.

States aren't Eager to Regulate Fertility Industry[Quotes CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]by Michael OlloveUSA TodayMarch 19th, 2015The Utah Legislature has ventured into the "Wild West of the fertility industry" by passing a law giving children conceived via sperm donation access to the medical histories of their biological fathers.
The Future of Wombs for Rentby Justine DrennanForeign PolicyMarch 2nd, 2015Thailand's recent surrogacy ban is liable to have a major impact on international surrogacy.
Surrogate Mothers in India Unaware of Risksby Frederik JoelvingReutersMarch 2nd, 2015Renting out their wombs may ease financial problems for poor women in India, but new research suggests surrogate mothers there are unaware of the risks and often left out of key medical decisions about their pregnancy.
United Kingdom Becomes Only Country to Allow Human Germline Modification[Press statement]February 24th, 2015The Center for Genetics and Society (CGS) joins many others who believe that this is a historic mistake.
She Got Rich Stealing Moms’ Dreamsby M.L. NestelThe Daily BeastFebruary 23rd, 2015Forty families, desperate for kids, paid Miracles Surrogacy tens of thousands each for the promise of parenthood. But the babies never came.
Thailand Bans Commercial Surrogacy for ForeignersBBCFebruary 20th, 2015Under the new law, only married Thai couples or couples with one Thai partner who have been married at least three years can seek surrogacy.
Gay Couple Stuck in Mexican Legal Limbo After Birth of Surrogate Twinsby Verónica CalderónEl PaisFebruary 12th, 2015They cannot secure passports for their children, given that the state of Tabasco recognizes surrogate births, while the government department responsible for Mexican passport applications does not.
It's Illegal to Pay a Surrogate Mother in Canada. So What Would Motivate a Woman to do it? by Denise BalkissoonThe Globe and MailFebruary 12th, 2015They show a curious mix of altruism and omnipotence: These are women who give up their very bodies for complete strangers, but only after choosing a lucky few from the desperate hordes.
Battle Over Paid Surrogacy Opens New Frontby Alexandra SifferlinTimeJanuary 28th, 2015In many states, hiring a woman to carry and give birth to a child for you is illegal. But New York Senator Brad Hoylman is fighting to change that in his home state.
Center for Genetics and Society Report on Global Surrogacy Practices[Press statement]January 16th, 2015Just Released: Center for Genetics and Society Report on Global Surrogacy Practices, part of a series from the landmark Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Surrogacy
Surrogate Moms Sue Thai Ministry for Custody of 13 ChildrenAssociated PressJanuary 14th, 2015The surrogate mothers of 13 babies fathered by a Japanese businessman are suing Thai authorities and seeking to regain custody of the children.
Trying to Tame the Wild West of Surrogacy in Indiaby Raksha KumarAlJazeera AmericaJanuary 14th, 2015Carrying someone else's baby is a $400 million industry here, but there are still no laws to protect women working as surrogate mothers.
Surrogate Mothers Do Fine In Decade Following Birthby Lisa RapaportReutersJanuary 9th, 2015A decade after giving birth, surrogate mothers don't appear to suffer lasting mental health difficulties as a result of giving away the babies they delivered, a small study suggests.
The Future of Conceptionby Jessica CussinsBiopolitical TimesJanuary 8th, 2015Numerous writers took advantage of the ending year to look broadly at just how drastically we are changing the process of baby-making, and what it all means for society.
The High-Tech Future of the Uterusby Katherine DonThe AtlanticJanuary 5th, 2015Following the recent success of the world's first uterus transplant, scientists are pursuing the new frontier of the bioengineered womb.
How the Rise of Commercial Surrogacy is Turning Babies into Commoditiesby Clair AchmadThe ConversationDecember 25th, 2014This year the international spotlight turned with full force on cross-border commercial surrogacy.
Commercialized Conception Casualties: "Brave" Baby Making?by Mirah RibenHuffington PostDecember 22nd, 2014Hiring surrogates and purchasing sperm, eggs, or others' leftover frozen embryos have become accepted as choices on a menu of options.
The Hidden Costs of International Surrogacyby Darlena CunhaThe AtlanticDecember 22nd, 2014Overseas options look cheaper on paper, but they don't account for fraud, travel costs, and legal headaches that inevitably arise.
Biopolitical News of 2014by Pete Shanks, Jessica Cussins & Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesDecember 19th, 2014This is everything important that happened in biopolitics in 2014 (or close to it).
Top Biopolitical Times Posts of 2014by Jessica Cussins & Pete ShanksBiopolitical TimesDecember 18th, 2014In 2014, CGS staffers and contributors posted 107 blogs in Biopolitical Times. These are twelve of our favorites.
Thailand’s Parliament Approves Bill Banning Commercial surrogacyAssociated Press in BangkokNovember 28th, 2014The decision follows several surrogacy scandals this year, including one in which an Australian couple left behind a baby with Down syndrome.
A Season of Surrogacy Scandalsby Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesOctober 16th, 2014The summer and fall of 2014 have been a season of surrogacy scandals in many countries.
Surrogate Baby Left in India by Australian Couple Was Not Trafficked, Investigation Findsby  Ben Doherty, Melissa Davey and Daniel HurstThe GuardianOctober 9th, 2014Diplomats were concerned that an unwanted twin left with friends might have been stranded without parents or citizenship.
Surrogacy Boom in Mexico Brings Tales of Missing Money and Stolen Eggsby Jo TuckmanThe GuardianSeptember 25th, 2014Gestational mothers and new parents tell about the dark side of an industry that operates in a legal grey area.
'You Can Even Tailor Your Baby's Sex': Inside an Illicit Beijing Surrogacy Firmby Nectar GanSouth China Morning PostSeptember 23rd, 2014One surrogacy agency in Beijing offers the option of choosing the sex of your child if you add a few thousand yuan.
The Role of International Law for Surrogacy Must Be Expandedby Lisa IkemotoThe New York Times, Room for DebateSeptember 22nd, 2014The absence of law creates a “race to the bottom,” which serves agencies and clinics well, but leaves surrogates, intended parents, and children unprotected.
MacArthur Grant Sheds Light on Reproductive Technologies[References CGS]by Elayne CliftSentinel SourceSeptember 18th, 2014Thanks to a recent MacArthur Foundation grant to the Center for Genetics and Society and Our Bodies Ourselves, the information gap surrounding surrogacy and other assisted reproductive technologies will be addressed.
Surrogates and Couples Face a Maze of Laws, State by Stateby Tamar LewinThe New York TimesSeptember 17th, 2014Surrogacy remains a polarizing and charged issue. There is nothing resembling a national consensus on how to handle it and no federal law, leaving the states free to do as they wish.
International Surrogacy, Global Consumerism, Harms to Women and Childrenby Carmel Shalev, Biopolitical Times guest contributorSeptember 15th, 2014Medical associations, nations, and the international community must intervene in the unregulated global market for surrogacy to protect, promote and sanction the human dignity and human rights of women and children.
Surrogate Targeted After Backing OutBangkok PostSeptember 9th, 2014A Thai surrogate mother who had second thoughts appealed for help from authorities after becoming the target of threats and intimidation by the surrogacy clinic and police working for them.
An International Agreement on Commercial Surrogacy? by Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesSeptember 4th, 2014A three-day convening in The Hague brought together scholars, women’s health and human rights advocates, and policymakers from 27 countries to tackle concerns about international commercial surrogacy.
Australian Father of Thai Surrogate Twins Charged with Sexually Abusing ThemThe TelegraphSeptember 2nd, 2014Thailand's surrogacy industry has been thrown into fresh turmoil - following the case of abandoned Down's syndrome baby Gammy - with a separate incident of abuse.
Womb for rent: A heart to carry another woman’s babyby Cecilia OkothNew VisionSeptember 2nd, 2014Imagine a woman desperately trying to get pregnant, but so far every attempt is unsuccessful. Would you be brave enough to “get pregnant for her?” Aisha Nansereko, a Ugandan woman, did. This is her story.
Disability Will Never Be Immoral by Jessica CussinsBiopolitical TimesAugust 29th, 2014Prenatal genetic testing can be a valuable tool, but it provides strikingly limited data. Events of this summer, including the abandonment of Baby Gammy and shockingly intolerant comments from Richard Dawkins, speak to the risk of conflating one type of information with a broader reality.
British baby Gammy: Surrogate claims mum refused to take disabled twinby Ellen WallworkParentDishAugust 26th, 2014A British surrogate mother of twins has said the intended mother rejected one of the babies because she was born with a disability.
Thailand’s Business in Paid Surrogates May Be Foundering in a Moral Quagmireby Thomas FrankThe New York TimesAugust 26th, 2014The baby boomlet in Pak Ok was just one of several bizarre and often ethically charged iterations of Thailand’s freewheeling venture into what detractors call the womb rental business, an unguided experiment that the country’s military government now says it is planning to end.
Interpol Investigates 'Baby Factory' as Man Fathers 16 Surrogate Childrenby Kevin RawlinsonThe GuardianAugust 23rd, 2014Interpol has launched an investigation into an alleged "baby factory" after it emerged that a Japanese businessman had fathered 16 surrogate children and expressed a desire for many more.
California Couple Shares Surrogate Story in Wake of Thailand Controversy by Beth GreenfieldYahoo! HealthAugust 19th, 2014When news broke earlier this month about baby Gammy, many were shocked. But not Keston and Andrea Ott-Dahl, a San Francisco couple who had a similar experience right here in America.
Thailand to Ban Commercial Surrogacy in Wake of Gammy ScandalThe GuardianAugust 13th, 2014Thailand's military government gave preliminary approval for a draft law to make commercial surrogacy a criminal offence.
Dreams of Children Shattered as Thailand Closes All IVF Center by Lindsay MurdochThe Sydney Morning HeraldAugust 9th, 2014Thai authorities linked the Bangkok clinic with a suspected international “baby factory” trafficking syndicate said to be behind at least 14 babies destined for overseas.
CGS to Chair Sessions at Forum on Cross-Border Surrogacy and Adoption in The HagueAugust 11-13, 2014Nearly 100 scholars, acdvocates, and policymakers from 27 countries will come together at the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy.
Thai Case Casts Spotlight on Business of Surrogacyby Grant Peck and Kriten GelineauAP August 7th, 2014Contributing to Thailand's popularity as a surrogacy destination is the large number of impoverished women who will carry babies for a price, and the availability of doctors with good reproductive medical skills.
More Heart-Wrenching Chapters in the Baby Gammy Storyby Jessica CussinsBiopolitical TimesAugust 7th, 2014Inadequate regulation of cross-border surrogacy has led to some truly awful stories, from coercion and exploitation of impoverished women, to children left stateless, to couples whose life savings have been embezzled by unscrupulous agencies. The unfolding story of Baby Gammy adds new dimensions to the complexities of contract pregnancies.
Surrogate Mother Cares for Baby Abandoned Because of Down Syndromeby Sonia Allan, Biopolitical Times guest contributorAugust 4th, 2014Many see Baby Gammy’s plight as highlighting the extent to which commercial surrogacy arrangements can exploit and commodify women and children.
China Experiences a Booming Underground Market in Surrogate Motherhoodby Ian Johnson and Cao LiThe New York TimesAugust 2nd, 2014In a small conference room overlooking Wuhan's smog-shrouded skyline, Huang Jinlai outlines his offer to China’s childless elite: for $240,000, a baby with your DNA, gender of your choice, born by a coddled but captive rural woman.
Australian Couple Leaves Down Syndrome Baby with Thai Surrogate by Lindsay MurdochThe Sydney Morning HeraldJuly 31st, 2014Gammy, a six-month-old baby abandoned by his Australian parents, could die because his Thai surrogate mother cannot pay for medical treatment for his congenital heart condition.
A Surrogacy Agency That Delivered Heartacheby Tamar LewinThe New York TimesJuly 27th, 2014As unregulated surrogacy agencies proliferate, the story of Planet Hospital stands as a cautionary tale about their ability to prey on vulnerable clients who do not notice the red flags.
French Luminaries’ Open Letter on Surrogacy by Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesJuly 24th, 2014Prominent left and center-left figures are urging President François Hollande to reinforce France’s legal prohibition of surrogacy contracts.
Closing the Information Gap on International Surrogacy[Quotes CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]by Elayne CliftWomen's Media CenterJuly 16th, 2014The Center for Genetics and Society and Our Bodies Ourselves are teaming up to shed light on the human rights aspects of cross-border surrogacy.
A Call to François Hollande to Publicly Oppose Legalizing Surrogate Mother Contractsby Jacques Delors and Lionel JospinLibérationJuly 13th, 2014An open letter from French luminaries asking to oppose recognition of surrogacy contracts and reinforce the legal framework to fight against the soliciting of French clients by surrogacy agencies.
Cross-Border Surrogacy: Media Spotlight, EU Court Decision, International Forumby Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesJuly 10th, 2014What happens when people flout their own countries’ laws by going abroad to hire a surrogate in one of the few jurisdictions that allow it?
Would-Be Parents Fleeced, Surrogates Abandoned by Mexican Surrogacy Operation Planet Hospitalby Jane Cowan and Bronwen ReedABC [Australia]July 8th, 2014An unscrupulous surrogacy operation in Mexico has left clients thousands of dollars out of pocket, and dozens of would-be surrogates abandoned.
Coming to U.S. for Baby, and Womb to Carry Itby Tamar LewinThe New York TimesJuly 5th, 2014With paid surrogacy not allowed in most of the world, foreign couples are heading to the US for surrogate pregnancies in increasing numbers.
European Human Rights Court Orders France to Recognise Surrogate-Mother ChildrenRFIJune 26th, 2014France has the right to ban surrogate parenthood but not to refuse granting legal status to children born to surrogate mothers, the Court ruled.
Woman Sets Out to Ban Surrogacyby Susan Donaldson JamesABCJune 25th, 2014A filmmaker argues that surrogacy has become a baby-buying operation that allows wealthy couples to exploit vulnerable women, often those of lesser means.
Ombudsman Warns Surrogacy Law Could Leave Children Statelessby Ruadhán Mac CormaicThe Irish TimesJune 24th, 2014The Irish Government should explain what will happen to children whose parents break the law by entering into a commercial surrogacy deal, advised the Children’s Ombudsman.
Passport Delay Leaves Surrogate Babies Stranded in IndiaBBCJune 20th, 2014The British government is being urged to allow a couple whose babies were born in a surrogacy arrangement to issue them passports.
Donor Deaths in India Highlight Surrogacy Perilsby Swapna MajundarThomson Reuters FoundationJune 16th, 2014Advocates are pressing the government to publicize health warnings and pass regulations.
Children of Surrogacy Campaign to Outlaw the Practiceby  Jane RidleyNew York PostJune 16th, 2014"You can’t sell your kidney for profit but you can purchase an egg or sell a child. There needs to be more checks and balances."
CGS and OBOS Awarded Two-Year Grant by MacArthur FoundationJune 11th, 2014We are delighted to announce that the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation has awarded CGS and OBOS a $200,000 grant over two years for collaborative work on cross-border surrogacy and commercial egg retrieval.
"Three-Person IVF" Update Reveals How Little We Knowby Jessica CussinsThe Huffington PostJune 5th, 2014The UK fertility regulator has been saying the techniques are "not unsafe" for three years now. This should not be interpreted to mean that they are in fact safe.
Another Scandal at a Prominent Surrogacy Agencyby Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesMay 29th, 2014Planet Hospital, a well-known medical tourism company that has boasted of pioneering cross-border surrogacy in India and Mexico, stands accused of deceiving its clients and stealing their money.
Desperate for a Baby: Scammed in Global Surrogacy's Newest Frontierby Caroline Cooper, Adam May and Anna ChristiansenAl Jazeera AmericaMay 15th, 2014The prominent international surrogacy agency Planet Hospital is now in bankruptcy and under federal investigation, accused of leaving clients with a pile of bills and no babies.
Ending Discrimination in Surrogacy Lawsby Anil MalhotraThe HinduMay 3rd, 2014Recent government meetings on India's draft Assisted Reproductive Technology Bill have resulted in a proposal for significant changes, including restricting surrogacy to “infertile Indian married couples” only.
US Paediatrician Attacks Surrogacyby Michael CookBioEdgeMay 3rd, 2014A pediatrician at the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine has published a blistering rebuttal to the claim that on the whole, women in developing countries benefit from commercial surrogacy.
Invoking ‘Choice’ When Discussing Surrogacy as a Feminist Concern is a Mistakeby Susan Berke Fogel, Francine Coeytaux, Marcy Darnovsky, Lisa Ikemoto, and Judy NorsigianRH Reality CheckApril 23rd, 2014It is troubling to see the vexing question of commercial surrogacy treated as a litmus test for feminists. It can’t be understood in a simplistic pro-choice versus anti-choice framework, or as only a matter of self-determination.
Should a Woman Be Allowed to Hire a Surrogate Because She Fears Pregnancy Will Hurt Her Career?Or "ruin" her body? What if she's just afraid of giving birth? by Sarah Elizabeth RichardsElleApril 17th, 2014“I call these cases designer surrogacy,” says a California fertility doctor.
The Baby Makers: Critics Push for Regulation of India's Booming Surrogacy IndustryABCApril 15th, 2014Candidates are being urged to finally push through legislation to regulate the country's booming commercial surrogacy industry. "The human rights of the surrogates are not being protected," said author and critic Kishwar Desai.
Inconvenient Truths About Commercial Surrogacyby Kathleen Sloan and Jennifer LahlTwin CitiesApril 1st, 2014It's time for the shenanigans and propaganda to stop and for the inconvenient truths about commercial surrogacy to be told.
Surrogacy Births Bill Sails Through House Committeeby Michelle MillhollonThe Advocate [Louisiana]March 27th, 2014The compromise includes criminalizing financial compensation other than medical, legal and travel expenses for the surrogacy.
A Surrogate Storyby Debesh BanerjeeThe Indian ExpressMarch 21st, 2014A documentary shot in Delhi tells of a surrogate mother’s life and the lucrative industry of commercial surrogacy.
Abbott Launches Sweeping Review of IVF EthicsSunshine Coast Daily [Australia]March 17th, 2014The ethical rules governing the use of egg and sperm donations, embryos, surrogacy and sex selection for IVF patients could soon be overhauled, with a sweeping review underway.
The Rent-a-Womb Boomby Adrienne VogtThe Daily BeastMarch 3rd, 2014Who really profits from India’s multimillion-dollar surrogacy industry? Adrienne Vogt explores the uncertain future of the subcontinent’s baby business.
What are the Best Interests of the Child in International Surrogacy?by Professor Eric Blyth, Dr Marilyn Crawshaw and Professor Olga van den AkkerBioNewsFebruary 17th, 2014As the surrogacy industry grows, so too do calls for a loosening of international and domestic restraints. A consequence of this is the potential marginalization of the best interests of children.
Bodies and Babies Commodified: A Review of Breedersby Gina Maranto, Biopolitical Times guest contributorBiopolitical TimesFebruary 17th, 2014Breeders serves as a necessary corrective to the rosy PR the surrogacy industry puts out.
Worlds, and Wombs, Collide in Kansas Bill Criminalizing Surrogate Pregnancy Contractsby Patricia J. WilliamsThe NationFebruary 5th, 2014There is danger in turning surrogacy into a sexless crime.
Review: The Big Lie: Motherhood, Feminism, and the Reality of the Biological Clock by Amy Richards, Biopolitical Times guest contributorFebruary 4th, 2014A generational wake-up call directed to those raised to think that medical breakthroughs are always in humanity’s best interest.
The Baby-Making Business: on the front lines of Toronto’s booming, semi-legal surrogacy marketby Alison MotlukToronto LifeFebruary 3rd, 2014Toronto’s surrogacy industry is booming and lucrative and at least partly illegal. Prospective parents, desperate to start a family, are willing to take the risk.
Ireland Publishes Draft Surrogacy Legislationby Antony Blackburn-StarzaBioNewsFebruary 3rd, 2014The Irish Government has agreed to put forward for consultation proposals for a wide-ranging bill that features provisions on surrogacy and parenthood.
What Huxley Knewby J. P. HarpigniesLetter to the New York TimesNovember 24th, 2013Huxley’s assembly-line baby factories were an exaggeration, but it’s a mistake to dismiss too quickly his fears about the genetic manipulation of the species.
International Surrogacy Laws are not Keeping upby Kingsley Napley, Claire Wood and Katie NewburyLexologyNovember 14th, 2013There is currently no worldwide regulation of surrogacy. Unfortunately, therefore, the potential for exploitation is high.
No More Tourist Visa for Commissioning Surrogacy in India: Home MinistryIBN LiveOctober 30th, 2013Foreign nationals intending to visit India for commissioning surrogacy will not be allowed to come on a tourist visa, with the Home Ministry ordering strict adherence of surrogacy laws.
'Where Did I Come From?' Donor Eggs, Sperm and a Surrogateby Anndee HochmanThe InquirerOctober 17th, 2013Child psychologists have long advised telling kids "early and often" about their origins, especially when those origins involve donor eggs or sperm.
Canadian LGBTQ Families and Assisted Reproduction by Pete ShanksBiopolitical TimesOctober 9th, 2013A major series of news articles describes "the emerging world of gay parenthood and surrogacy" in Canada — and abroad.
The Arlene Bynon Show[With CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]by Arlene BynonThe Arlene Bynon ShowOctober 7th, 2013Marcy Darnovsky discusses 23andMe's recent "designer baby" patent with on a national affairs program broadcast on SiriusXM.
Sun, sand and surrogatesby Natalie StechysonCalgary HeraldSeptember 30th, 2013International surrogacy is fraught with ethical and medical dilemmas, including the possibility that the women who bear children for others are being exploited.
Foreigners Are Flocking To India To Rent Wombs And Grow Surrogate Babies by Nita Bhalla and Mansi ThapliyalReutersSeptember 30th, 2013A debate over whether the unregulated surrogacy industry in India exploits poor women prompted a draft law that could make it tougher for foreigners seeking babies made in India.
Outsourcing a Life[Quotes CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]by Stephanie M. LeeSan Francisco ChronicleSeptember 30th, 2013The Akanksha Infertility Clinic in Anand, India allowed a San Francisco Chronicle reporter and photographer full access to its facilities, except for the delivery room.
Wealthy Chinese Seek U.S. Surrogates for Second Child, Green Cardby Alexandra HarneyReutersSeptember 23rd, 2013Wealthy Chinese are hiring American women to serve as surrogates for their children, creating a small but growing business in "designer" American babies for China's elite.
Recent Surrogacy Disputes in Focusby Louisa GhevaertBioNewsSeptember 16th, 2013Surrogacy law and policy differs considerably between countries. Some jurisdictions ban or restrict the practice of surrogacy, whilst others have no legal regulation and some permit it on a commercial basis.
Big Business in Babies: First IVF Company Now Being Traded on the Stock Marketby Judy Norsigian and Miriam Zoll, Biopolitical Times guest contributorsAugust 6th, 2013Would corporate earnings shrink if more women were made aware of high IVF failure rates? Does the future of the fertility industry depend on expanding into new markets in the Middle East and Asia?
The Sorry State of Indian Surrogatesby Gina Maranto, Biopolitical Times guest contributorAugust 6th, 2013A new report reveals disturbing conditions for those who labor in India’s booming commercial surrogacy industry.
Assisted Reproductive Technologies: Blessing? Curse? Both?[Quotes CGS's Diane Tober]by Eleanor J BaderTruthoutJuly 28th, 2013ART has helped millions of women have children. At the same time, moral concerns and medical questions abound.
In India, a Rise in Surrogate Births for Westby Rama LakshmiThe Washington PostJuly 26th, 2013A government-funded study finds that some unscrupulous agents are luring poor, uneducated women into signing surrogacy contracts that they do not fully understand.
Unregulated Surrogacy Industry Worth Over $2bn Thrives Without Legal Frameworkby Himanshi DhawanThe Times of IndiaJuly 18th, 2013A new study by the Centre for Social Research found that there is little protection for surrogates.
New Study Tracks Emotional Health of 'Surrogate Kids'by  Linda CarrollTodayJune 19th, 2013New research suggests that children born to a surrogate may experience more adjustment problems in youth than those conceived with third-party eggs or sperm.
Israeli Sex Offender Taps India's Booming Surrogacy Trade For Baby Girlby Jason OverdorfGlobal PostJune 10th, 2013A convicted Israeli pedophile has gained custody of a girl born to an Indian surrogate, triggering assurances of a re-look at surrogacy rules in New Delhi and Jerusalem.
Modesto Woman Gets 5 Years in Prison for Surrogacy Scamby Carlos SaucedoABC LocalMay 13th, 2013The owner of a Modesto surrogate agency accused of a $2 million fraud scheme has been sentenced in federal court.
Cracked Open: New Book Looks at Fertility and Reproductive Technologyby RachelOur Bodies Our BlogApril 30th, 2013Just out: A new book by award-winning writer and international public health and reproductive rights advocate Miriam Zoll, Cracked Open: Liberty, Fertility and the Pursuit of High Tech Babies.
Surrogacy: Joyful, Frightening, Always Riskyby Suzanne RicoThe AtlanticApril 17th, 2013The story of two families who had babies via surrogate, with very different experiences.
Baby Boom: Indian Women Giving Birth to U.S. Babiesby Holly WilliamsCBS NewsApril 10th, 2013A lot of businesses go to India for inexpensive labor and it turns out American couples are doing the same. One village has become a center for cut-rate surrogacy, offering young women who will be carrying babies to term.
Surrogacy flourishes despite crackdownby Zhang WenGlobal TimesApril 7th, 2013Beijing officials shut down an illegal - and lucrative - surrogacy agency in Beijing last month, but the practice continues.
Shifts in the Global Body Market: Access or Exploitation?by Jessica CussinsBiopolitical TimesApril 1st, 2013PlanetHospital claims that new surrogacy regulations in India have ruined a “golden opportunity” and paints Mexico and Thailand as the surrogacy frontiers – where it happens to have business arrangements.
Surrogacy's Painful Path to Parenthoodby Julia MedewThe AgeMarch 23rd, 2013Reports of abortions, questionable medical bills and baby mix-ups are increasingly emerging from overseas destinations where commercial surrogacy is legal.
Govt Proposes to Bring Bill to Regulate Surrogacy: AzadThe HinduMarch 19th, 2013The Indian government is proposing to monitor the services of assisted reproductive technology clinics and banks to regulate surrogacy in the country.
‘Business has Boomed’: Canadian Surrogacy Agent Facing 27 Charges Continues her Controversial Workby Tom BlackwellNational PostMarch 13th, 2013A surrogacy agent facing 27 charges under a precedent-setting RCMP prosecution continues to forge ahead with her controversial work, offering cash incentives for recruiting new surrogate mothers.
Donor Wombs: Giving Women Without Uteruses a Chance to Carry a Baby Stirs Assisted Baby Making Debateby Sharon KirkeyEdmonton JournalMarch 10th, 2013In a world first attempt, doctors in Turkey are preparing to transfer a single frozen embryo into a 23-year-old woman whose uterus came from a brain-dead donor.
Surrogate Offered $10,000 to Abort Babyby Elizabeth CohenCNNMarch 6th, 2013A surrogate refused to have an abortion after severe abnormalities were spotted on an ultrasound and moved to Michigan, where she became the legal mother.
Surrogacy Laws May Leave Australian Babies Statelessby Kerry BrewsterABC News [Australia]March 4th, 2013Australian babies may be left stateless and unable to leave India as a result of changes to the country's commercial surrogacy laws.
Desperate for Children, They Were Swindled Out of $2 Million Central Valley Business TimesFebruary 19th, 2013A California woman pleaded guilty to four counts of wire fraud in connection with a scheme she carried out through her surrogacy and egg donation agency, Surrogenesis USA Inc.
French Gay Marriage Plans Stir Parenthood Debateby Associated PressNPRJanuary 31st, 2013The president's promise to legalize gay marriage was seen as relatively uncontroversial when it first came up, but the news reopened a raw national debate on fertility treatments, surrogacy and adoption.
Neanderthal Clone Poll Finds Most Americans Oppose Cloning Human Relative by Emily SwansonHuffington PostJanuary 30th, 2013Most Americans are opposed to allowing any scientist to attempt such a feat - with or without a human surrogate.
Transparency is the VictimThe HinduJanuary 27th, 2013In the absence of effective oversight of assisted reproduction practices, some medical institutions in Delhi are flouting medical and ethical rules with aplomb.
California Passes The Most Progressive Surrogacy Bill In The Worldby Andrew Vorzimer and David RandallAmerican Fertility Association BlogJanuary 25th, 2013The legislation is designed to protect all parties involved in surrogacy arrangements.
Neo Neanderthal[With CGS's Pete Shanks]by Alyona MinkovskiHuffPost LiveJanuary 25th, 2013A leading geneticist at Harvard Medical School says he can clone a Neanderthal and resurrect the extinct species. What are the ethical issues, risks and benefits?
Neanderthal Cloning Comments Spark Controversy in Scientific Community[Quotes CGS's Pete Shanks]by Jason KoeblerUS NewsJanuary 25th, 2013The suggestion that scientists would need a "cohort" of Neanderthals is "irresponsible speculation."
George Church on Neanderthal Clones and Designer Babies by Pete ShanksBiopolitical TimesJanuary 23rd, 2013George Church now says that he doesn't advocate cloning a Neanderthal with a human surrogate. Here's some context.
"Adventurous Female Human" Needed to Give Birth to NeandertalGenome WebJanuary 17th, 2013Harvard's George Church on recreating Neandertals, engineering humans to live to 120, making people resistant to viruses, and exchanging DNA with other species.
Surrogacy as Cover for Trading in Babiesby Ujjwala NayuduThe Indian ExpressJanuary 8th, 2013A case in Ahmedabad blurs the line between baby trading and surrogacy.
New Guidelines: India Not A Viable Option For Gay Couples, Unmarried Couples Or Single Individualsby Andrew VorzimerThe Spin DoctorJanuary 4th, 2013India’s Ministry of Home Affairs has released guidelines that apply to foreign nationals seeking an Indian surrogate.
Exclusive: Rise in Number of Couples Seeking 'Wombs for Hire' Abroad by Jeremy LauranceThe IndependentDecember 28th, 2012The number of British couples formally registering children born to foreign surrogates has nearly trebled in five years, raising concerns that poor women in developing countries are being exploited by rich Westerners.
Review: Bioethics: All That Matters by Donna Dickensonby Gina Maranto, Biopolitical Times guest contributorDecember 13th, 2012This lively and accessible guide to the ethical implications of biotechnology asks how the field promotes or undermines social equality.
Who's Mom? Legally, Biologically, it's no Easy Answerby Martin E. KlimekUSA TodayDecember 9th, 2012New York allows gay marriage but forbids surrogacy, while Utah permits surrogacy but bans gay marriage.
Rights to Maternity Leave Granted to Parents Through Surrogacyby Sarah GuyBioNewsNovember 26th, 2012The right to maternity leave in the UK will be extended to parents of children born through surrogacy, under proposed changes to rules on parental leave recently announced by the Government.
Making Babies, Just to Make Ends Meetby Susan StraightThe New York TimesNovember 3rd, 2012After learning that her neighbor became a surrogate to pay the bills, the author finds out more about what it's been like for her to rent out her womb.
Law Lags as Aussies Employ Overseas Surrogate Mums[radio transcript]by Damien CarrickABC (Australia) RadioNationalOctober 23rd, 2012Though surrogacy is illegal in Australia, a child is born in India to Australian parents every day. What are the legal and ethical dimensions of hiring a woman from another country as a surrogate?
Reproductive Tourism: Paying Women in Poor Countries to Bear Our Babies is Rife with Ethical ProblemsHealthCanal.comOctober 23rd, 2012An upcoming Journal of Medical Ethics paper highlights major ethical concerns with reproductive tourism, one of which is the tension between business and medical ethics.
Surrogacy, Now Big Business in Southern Californiaby Michael CookBioEdgeOctober 20th, 2012A promotional video used for gay couples in “the surrogacy friendly state of California” lacks any discussion of the difficult moral terrain.
Commercial Surrogacy Grows in Indiaby Stephanie M. LeeSan Francisco ChronicleOctober 20th, 2012Critics worry that the mostly unregulated industry is rife with potential health and legal complications for the intended parents and surrogates alike.
Is This Informal Surrogacy or Exploitation?by Pete ShanksBiopolitical TimesOctober 2nd, 2012A bizarre situation in Texas is either the result of a horrible misunderstanding about an informal, unpaid surrogacy or an appalling case of exploitation.
My Three Parents, Coming Soon?[With CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]HuffPost LiveSeptember 27th, 2012The UK is considering allowing a procedure that would alter the genes of resulting children and all subsequent generations.
Feel-Good Surrogacy?: The New Normal Tackles ARTs with Lighthearted Banterby Jessica CussinsBiopolitical TimesSeptember 17th, 2012The New Normal showcases a lighthearted vision of surrogacy and gay parenthood that has moving moments, but largely misses the mark.
Transhumanist Web Series Likely to Disappoint Transhumanistsby Emily BeitiksBiopolitical TimesSeptember 6th, 2012A new web-based digital series looks at a transhumanist future with an eye to social justice and finds it frightening.
Christie Vetoes Bill That Would Have Eased Tough Rules for Gestational Surrogatesby  Susan K. LivioNew Jersey Star LedgerAugust 8th, 2012The governor of New Jersey has vetoed a bill that would have relaxed the state's regulation of commercial surrogacy.
Changes for India’s ART Industry?by Jessica CussinsBiopolitical TimesAugust 6th, 2012The recent death of a surrogate in India, along with new information about the 2010 death of a 17-year-old who had repeatedly sold her eggs, have built support for regulation of assisted reproduction. A draft bill would provide some safeguards, but Indian women’s health advocates say other provisions “leave much to be desired.”
Wisconsin Ruling Prevents Most Insurers From Denying Benefits to Surrogatesby Gina BartonMilwaukee Journal SentinelAugust 4th, 2012The Wisconsin Supreme Court has ruled that insurance companies cannot deny coverage based on circumstances of pregnancy.
Bill Aims to Weed Out Rent-a-Womb Clinicsby Kounteya SinhaThe Times of IndiaJuly 13th, 2012The Assisted Reproductive Technology Regulation Bill will make it mandatory for all Indian clinics involved in treating infertility to be part of a National Registry.
Womb Transplants Could Be a Reality in Britain Within Two Years: Surgeonby Rebecca SmithTelegraphJuly 12th, 2012Some doctors say womb transplants would be a more 'ethical solution' to infertility than seeking a surrogate.
Surrogacy Gives Birth to IndustryOregon's Medical Advances, Willing Mothers Attract International Clients Who Bring Cash With Their Dreamsby Peter KornPortland TribuneJune 21st, 2012Couples from around the world looking for surrogate gestational carriers have discovered Oregon, with its liberal surrogate laws and highly rated reproductive medicine clinics.
First Gay Couple to Become Fathers in UK Spend £65K to Ensure Next Child is a Girl by Sadie WhitelocksThe Daily Mail (UK)June 12th, 2012The first same-sex couple in the UK to have their names listed as parents on a birth certificate have traveled to the US and spent over $100,000 on specialist IVF treatment to ensure that their next child is female.
Indian Surrogate Dies Amid Complications in Eighth Month of Pregnancyby Jessica CussinsBiopolitical TimesMay 31st, 2012The death of Premila Vaghela illustrates the risks that impoverished surrogates may be tempted to take.
Revealed: How More and More Britons are Paying Indian Women to Become Surrogate Mothersby Shekhar BhatiaThe Telegraph (UK)May 26th, 2012The sheer scale of the “baby factory” phenomenon is now causing concern with the Indian government. There are up to 1,000 unregulated clinics, comprising an industry worth as much as £1.5 billion a year.
Surrogate Mother Dies of ComplicationsTimes of IndiaMay 17th, 2012Premila Vaghela, who became a surrogate in order to supplement her family income and brighten the future of her own two kids, died due to unexplained complications.
Woman Who Ran Surrogacy Company Arrested on Fraud Chargesby Rosalio AhumadaBellingham HeraldApril 20th, 2012A California woman was arrested this week on charges that her company, SurroGenesis, was defrauding its clients.
Canada's Fertility Industry Now Open for (Unregulated) Businessby Emily BeitiksBiopolitical TimesApril 19th, 2012The decision to close down Assisted Human Reproduction Canada signals even less oversight of the country’s fertility industry.
Stricter Norms for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinicsby Kounteya SinhaThe Times of IndiaApril 12th, 2012India is establishing a mandatory registry for all fertility clinics in the country.
Canada’s Murky Legal World of Surrogate-Consultants and Human-Egg Buyersby Tom BlackwellNational PostMarch 9th, 2012Egg brokers in Canada charge thousands for the service, yet Canadian law prohibits payment for the “carriers” and donors themselves, part of the legal grey zone that envelops the industry.
Illegal Surrogacy Operation the "Tip of the Iceberg"by Emily BeitiksBiopolitical TimesMarch 6th, 2012The accomplices in the surrogacy scandal have been sentenced. What have we learned about preventing further abuses in the surrogacy industry?
Surrogate Mothers Face Nightmares of Surrogacyby Savita VermaIndia TodayMarch 5th, 2012From lack of adequate compensation to cultural stigmas, surrogate mothers in India face a unique set of hardships and risks.
Pregnant Surrogates ‘Left in the Lurch’ after RCMP Raid Fertility Consultant’s Officeby Tom BlackwellNational PostMarch 1st, 2012Canadian police launched an unprecedented investigation of a fertility-treatment consultant, citing alleged violations of laws that ban buying or selling sperm, eggs and surrogacy services.
Surrogacy Under Scrutinyby Wang HairongBejing ReviewFebruary 27th, 2012Surrogate births commissioned by a rich couple raise reproductive equality and legal concerns.
Surrogacy Lawyer Theresa Erickson Pleads Guiltyby Julie WatsonAssociated PressFebruary 25th, 2012Theresa Erickson, the ringleader of the recent baby-selling scheme, has been sentenced to 5 months in prison and 9 months of home confinement.
Assisted Reproduction Technologies Hit Prime Time by Emily BeitiksBiopolitical TimesFebruary 23rd, 2012This month’s episodes of Glee and Modern Family – two of the most popular prime time television shows – featured central characters contemplating assisted reproductive technologies.
Chinese Couples Come to U.S. to Have Children Through Surrogacyby Shan LiLos Angeles TimesFebruary 18th, 2012China does not permit commercial surrogacy, but the country's rising affluence allows some couples to use U.S. surrogacy clinics.
Too Posh for Pregnancy? by Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesFebruary 6th, 2012How many women hire surrogates because they are too busy to be pregnant or want to avoid stretch marks?
Egg Donor Ad is Raising Eyebrowsby Rachel Folz14 NewsJanuary 4th, 2012A Philadelphia company's appeal for egg donors and surrogate mothers is raising eyebrows for referring to egg donation as a "job."
Surrogacy Broker in “Baby-Selling Ring” Sent to Prison by Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesDecember 7th, 2011The first of three women who created an "inventory of babies" and sold them at high prices has been sentenced.
Lawyer in Baby-Selling Ring Sentencedby Greg MoranSign On San DiegoDecember 1st, 2011The first of three women who pleaded guilty to running an international baby-selling ring was sentenced Thursday to one year in custody by a federal judge.
Body for Rentby Tatia MegeneishviliThe Financial November 21st, 2011According to doctors' data, surrogacy in Georgia [the country] has increased with the majority of surrogate mothers explaining that money is the most determining factor in their decision.
Surrogacy Children Caught in Legal Limboby Carl O'BrienIrish TimesNovember 19th, 2011Children born through surrogacy to Irish couples abroad risk getting caught in legal limbo, left either stateless or unable to get an Irish passport.
Surrogate Mother Left with Huge Bill; Babies in Austriaby Corey Rose9 News ColorodoOctober 25th, 2011A surrogate mother who faced life-threatening complications was left with the bill, providing further information on another recent surrogacy scandal.
South Africa tightens rules for foreigners to make familiesSapa-AFPOctober 13th, 2011In the wake of Madonna's adoptions in nearby Malawi, and a commercial surrogacy boom in India, South Africa is laying out stricter rules for foreigners looking to make families here.
New Details Emerge in Baby-Selling Scamby Greg MoranSign On San DiegoOctober 5th, 2011Three women who have pleaded guilty to conspiracy in an illegal baby-selling scheme also defrauded a state health care program and illegally distributed fertility drugs to aid the scam.
Protecting the Rights of Surrogate Mothers in Indiaby Nilanjana S. RoyNew York TimesOctober 4th, 2011Commercial surrogacy is on the rise in India, but India’s laws have not directly addressed the complexities of surrogacy to protect the rights of surrogate mothers.
Surrogates Often Deeply Upset by the Process: Studyby Tom BlackwellNational PostSeptember 23rd, 2011Surrogacy has received relatively little scientific examination, but it turns out surrogates are often deeply upset by the process, a new Canadian case study suggests.
Surrogacy and Baby-Selling: Latest Fertility Industry Scandal by Marcy DarnovskyRH Reality CheckAugust 19th, 2011Prominent surrogacy lawyers plead guilty to setting up a baby-selling ring centered in California and the Ukraine, lying to clients and surrogates, and defrauding the state of California.
Stratified Reproductionby Gina Maranto, Biopolitical Times guest contributorAugust 3rd, 2011France Winddance Twine’s new volume provides a noteworthy look at stratified reproduction and how racism, classism, and colorism permeate the international market for wombs and gametes.
Pregnant Vietnamese sent home[Thailand]by Suthiwit ChayutworakanBangkok PostMay 31st, 2011After a raid by Thai police on a criminal surrogacy operation, Thailand and Vietnam have agreed to cooperate on combating human trafficking and providing assistance to its victims.
High Court judge approves commercial surrogacy[United Kingdom]BBC NewsMay 19th, 2011Citing the welfare of the child involved, the judge retrospectively approved a commercial surrogacy arrangement made by a British couple who hired a woman from the Ukraine.
Surrogate children have no right to German passport, court rules[Germany]The LocalApril 28th, 2011In a crucial decision on surrogate births, a court ruled this week that a child born to a surrogate mother in India has no right to a German passport despite having a German biological father.
Draft surrogacy act under consideration[Thailand]Bangkok PostApril 22nd, 2011Thailand's Surrogacy Act, which will clarify what had been a legal gray area, has been passed by the Cabinet and now awaits parliamentary approval.
India surrogacy service not a good deal, one family saysby Mark MagnierLos Angeles TimesApril 18th, 2011The Toronto couple wanted to save money, so they worked with an Indian clinic to have a child through a surrogate. Then, they say, came a sort of bait and switch. The clinic denies any wrongdoing.
Surrogate children ‘are not French’[France]The ConnexionApril 7th, 2011The top appeals court in France has decided that a French couple’s twins born in America to a surrogate mother cannot be officially registered as their daughters.
3-Month Pregnancies for Hire: A Pure Fantasy? by Doug PetBiopolitical TimesMarch 24th, 2011Tze Chun’s short film Silver Sling depicts a grim future for commercial surrogacy, and reflects on a grim present.
French family detained for smuggling 2 infantsby Maria DanilovaThe San Diego Union-TribuneMarch 24th, 2011The parents say they acted out of desperation after the French government refused to issue the children passports because it does not recognize surrogacy.
IVF odds of success are decent; twin births still commonby Shari RoanLos Angeles Times March 7th, 2011Only 7.2% of women under age 35 opted for a single-embryo transfer in 2009, up from 5.2% in 2008. In 2003, the rate was 0.7%.
Men who 'imported' Uzbekistani as surrogate mothers get probations [Taiwan]The China Post/ Asia News NetworkFebruary 24th, 2011According to the court, the main suspect desired mix-race babies and used reasons such as marriage or studying as excuses to bring a total of six Uzbekistani women into the country since 2007.
Thai police free women from surrogate baby ring[Thailand]AFPFebruary 24th, 2011Fourteen Vietnamese women, seven of them pregnant, have been rescued from an "illegal and inhuman" surrogate baby breeding ring in Thailand, officials said.
India moves toward regulation of assisted reproduction and surrogacy by Doug PetBiopolitical TimesFebruary 10th, 2011The Indian Ministry of Health has finalized its 2010 ART Regulation bill, which if approved will have enormous implications for global ART and surrogacy.
Divergent laws leave twins stateless[India]by Sumitra Deb RoyThe Times of IndiaFebruary 2nd, 2011Norway maintains that the Indian surrogate is the children's legal mother, while India insists that the commissioning individual is the parent.
Bill seeks to regulate wombs-for-rent[India]by Kounteya SinhaTimes of IndiaJanuary 27th, 2011India's Union health ministry has now finalised the Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) Regulation Bill 2010, which has been sent to the law ministry for its approval.
Surrogacy Law: Conn. Gives Non-Genetic Parents Legal Rightsby Susan Donaldson JamesABC NewsJanuary 20th, 2011Connecticut's Supreme Court honors a signed agreement between a surrogate mother and a gay couple.
The Baby Business: A Fairy Tale?by Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesJanuary 6th, 2011Yet another first-person account that puts rose-tinted glasses on the potential for exploitation in the commercial surrogacy business.
Like Supreme Court, reactions divided on fertility industry ruling[Canada]by Sharon Kirkey and Janice TibbettsCanada.comDecember 22nd, 2010Critics say the ruling placing much of Canada's burgeoning fertility industry under provincial control leaves an enormous gap in the regulation of artificial procreation.
Divided Supreme Court strikes down key federal powers over fertility industry[Canada]by Janice Tibbetts and Sharon KirkeyCanada.comDecember 22nd, 2010The court split on whether assisted human reproduction should fall under federal control or provincial jurisdiction. Criminal bans on human cloning, surrogacy and commercial trade of eggs and sperm — which were never contested by Quebec — remain in place.
Assembling the Global Babyby Tamara Audi and Arlene ChangThe Wall Street JournalDecember 10th, 2010With an international network of surrogate mothers and egg and sperm donors, a new industry is emerging to produce children on the cheap and outside the reach of restrictive laws.
"They are just the wombs"by Gina Maranto, Biopolitical Times guest contributorBiopolitical TimesDecember 6th, 2010Sociologist Amrita Pande documents the experiences of surrogates.
Fertility’s Mega-Mallby Doug PetBiopolitical TimesNovember 11th, 2010The “Fertility Show” in London literally displays how the ART industry is commidfying fertility.
The Most Wanted Surrogates in the World by Habiba Nosheen and Hilke SchellmannGlamourOctober 20th, 2010Cash-strapped and alone on the home front, some military wives are making a living by carrying babies for other couples.
Couple urged surrogate to abort fetus due to defectby Tom BlackwellNational PostOctober 6th, 2010Questions are being raised about whether government oversight of contracts between mothers and “commissioning” parents is needed.
Pregnancy without Borders: Reproductive Tourism's Global Reach by Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesSeptember 28th, 2010Recent media coverage of reproductive tourism, and two upcoming conferences, suggest that it has become a global growth sector.
India, the Rent-a-Womb Capital of the World by Amana Fontanella-KhanSlateAugust 23rd, 2010The country's booming market for surrogacy.
India's surrogate mothers face new rules to restrict 'pot of gold'by Jason BurkeThe GuardianJuly 30th, 2010The world center of 'surrogacy tourism' will introduce legislation to regulate £1.5bn industry
Reproductive Tourism: Surrogacy Outsourcing Takes Hold in Guatemalaby Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesJune 1st, 2010Impoverished Guatemalan women are a new labor force in the global baby business.
Incentives for Donation of Human Bodily Material?by Pete ShanksBiopolitical TimesMay 10th, 2010The Nuffield Council on Bioethics has launched a public consultation about donating, or perhaps selling, human bodily material.
Inside India's international baby farmby Nicola SmithThe TimesMay 9th, 2010Childless couples from around the world are travelling to India to have babies by surrogate mothers. They say it’s their last chance and that everyone benefits. Is it a fair trade?
BioConversations: Taking the Biotech Discussion Public by Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesMay 5th, 2010Introducing the first web series for parents about technologies that could alter human nature.
Babies left in limbo as India struggles with demand for surrogacy by Matt WadeThe Sydney Morning HeraldMay 1st, 2010The rapid growth of reproductive tourism in India has created numerous cases of legal limbo.
Struggling to Control Fertility Tourismby Pete ShanksBiopolitical TimesApril 17th, 2010Several countries are trying to figure out what to do about their citizens who go abroad for assisted reproduction procedures to evade local prohibitions (or just to save money).
Couples who pay surrogate mothers could lose right to raise the child [United Kingdom]by The GuardianDenis CampbellApril 5th, 2010High court could refuse recognition of parental rights to people who flout law by paying disproportionate fees to a surrogate mother overseas.
In the womb of controversyby Jaya MenonThe Times of IndiaJanuary 25th, 2010The US consulate in Chennai has tightened its visa processing norms, particularly for couples coming to the city for fertility treatment.
Surrogacy Battles Expose Uneven Legal Landscapeby Nathan KoppelWall Street JournalJanuary 15th, 2010Surrogacy remains a relatively uncommon pathway to parenthood, in part because it still rests on a somewhat shaky legal ground in parts of the country
Calls for Regulating Surrogacy in the New York Timesby Jesse ReynoldsBiopolitical TimesJanuary 5th, 2010The paper of record ran four opinions online, each calling for greater oversight of commercial surrogacy.
Building a Baby, With Few Ground Rules by Stephanie SaulNew York TimesDecember 13th, 2009Surrogacy is largely without regulation, and arrangements that go badly can have profound implications, particularly for the children.
A Search for a Surrogate Leads to Indiaby Margot CohenWall Street JournalOctober 9th, 2009Attracted by lower costs, U.S. couples are looking to India to hire surrogates—women who will bear children on their behalf.
Outsourcing Pregnancy: Surrogacy as "Emotional Labor"by Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesSeptember 29th, 2009Is outsourcing pregnancy to poor women in India more like Mother Teresa or Brave New World?
More fraud and scandal in the California fertility industryby Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesSeptember 21st, 2009The owner of a surrogacy agency vanished with about $2 million of her clients' money, leaving surrogates in mid-pregnancy with no health insurance to cover their prenatal care or deliveries.
Complications of Surrogacy: The Case of Baby Manjiby Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesSeptember 18th, 2009A new paper tells the story of a baby whose “contracting mother” no longer wanted her, triggering a legal and diplomatic crisis.
Michael Jackson, cloning, and assisted reproduction: The trivial and the troublingby Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesJuly 13th, 2009Michael Jackson was “obsessed” with cloning himself, and used assisted reproduction to produce three children “crafted to be `white’ enough to match [his] artfully devised if pathetically alienated image of himself.”
Travel to exotic lands; sell your eggsby Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesJune 30th, 2009A Florida fertility clinic is recruiting egg donors with an ad in a college newspaper offering cash plus a 3-week trip to India "planned around your academic schedule."
Womb for Hireby Raissa RoblesNewsbreakJune 15th, 2009A growing number of Filipinos wish to rent out their wombs and sell their eggs or sperm, prompting authorities to call for a review of the law against child trafficking.
Surrogacy in India: The Sun Still Never Sets by Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesMay 29th, 2009Hundreds of Britons are hiring Indian women for contract pregnancies.
Investigation: Surrogate baby delivered every 48 hoursby Shekhar BhatiaThe Evening StandardMay 20th, 2009An Evening Standard investigation today exposes the boom in Indian surrogate babies for childless Western couples.
Reproductive Ethics [PDF][Cites CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]by Marcia ClemmittThe CQ ResearcherMay 15th, 2009An in-depth review of policy options for the oversight of assisted reproductive technologies
Forced abortions shake up China wombs-for-rent industryby James PomfretReutersApril 30th, 2009Increasing numbers of infertile couples have been seeking Chinese surrogate mothers, and there are signs the authorities are starting to force some surrogate mothers to abort their fetuses.
Poverty makes surrogates of Indian women in Gujaratby Rina ChandranReutersApril 8th, 2009Doctors with a western education, top-notch facilities and lower prices have made India an attractive surrogacy destination for many childless couples at home and abroad.
Surrogacy Scandals Continueby Jesse ReynoldsBiopolitical TimesMarch 27th, 2009Another surrogacy agency's leader appears to have pulled a Madoff and walked off with large cash deposits.
Beverly Hills surrogacy firm accused of fraud and theftby Kimi Yoshino and Alan ZaremboLos Angeles Times March 26th, 2009Surrogacy agencies are perhaps the least regulated aspect of a loosely overseen multibillion-dollar industry: "If you're going to sell hot dogs, you need a permit. If you're going to run a surrogacy agency out of your garage, you don't."
Surrogacy in the LA Times: Military wives and missing paymentsby Jesse ReynoldsBiopolitical TimesMarch 24th, 2009Two recent articles at the LA Times explore surrogacy: one a personal tale, the other regarding vanishing payments.
Money woes reported at firms involved in surrogate birthsby Kimi YoshinoLos Angeles TimesMarch 21st, 2009Clients and employees say the companies have stopped paying surrogates, raising fears about the status of advance payments from prospective parents.
The impotency of Canada’s fertility lawsby Tom BlackwellNational PostFebruary 13th, 2009Five years after the Assisted Human Reproduction Act was implemented, Health Canada has yet to implement regulations that would empower the agency to license and inspect the booming fertility industry.
Desperate mothers fuel India's 'baby factories''Even grandmother can be mother' at unregulated clinicsby Stephanie NolenToronto Globe and MailFebruary 13th, 2009In the global community of infertility, India is the salvation destination, the country where an unregulated reproductive-technology sector makes anything possible.
Ugandan women rent wombs by Carol NatukundaThe New VisionDecember 26th, 2008Commercial surrogacy is on the rise in Uganda.
Eggs, wombs and the economy: Hard times fuel a buyers’ marketby Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesDecember 16th, 2008The economic crisis has created a surge in the number of women seeking cash by providing eggs or carrying surrogate pregnancies for other people.
Rent-a-Womb Is Where Market Logic Leads [Commentary]by Thomas Frank The Wall Street JournalDecember 10th, 2008Massive inequality, we have learned, isn't the best way to run an economy after all. Some people haven't received the memo. Take Alex Kuczynski, author of the New York Times Magazine cover story, which tells how she went about hiring another woman to bear her child.
Ova Time: Women Line Up To Donate Eggs -- for Money by Melinda BeckThe Wall Street JournalDecember 9th, 2008Here's another sign of the tough economic times: Some clinics are reporting a surge in the number of women applying to donate eggs or serve as surrogate mothers for infertile couples.
The rich are different from you and me: Yes, they hire surrogatesby Jesse ReynoldsBiopolitical TimesDecember 1st, 2008The cover story of last week's New York Times Sunday Magazine addresses the issue of the commercialization of assisted reproduction in a manner that is simultaneously bluntly honest and painfully naive
Her Body, My Baby by Alex KuczynskiThe New York TimesNovember 28th, 2008After half a decade of trying to become pregnant, I came to the conclusion that if we wanted to have a child who was genetically related to us, we would have to find a woman with a more reliable uterus to gestate and deliver our baby.
OK to Rent Womb in India by P. JayaramThe Straits TimesOctober 6th, 2008INDIA'S Supreme Court has not only confirmed what everyone already knew, that surrogacy is a commercial industry in the country, but it also ruled that renting a womb is legal.
Draft law tightens surrogacy norms [India]by Malathy IyerTimes of IndiaSeptember 30th, 2008The Indian government has unveiled a bill to regulate assisted reproduction, including surrogacy.
In India, Surrogacy Has Become a Global Businessby Sandra SchulzDer SpiegelSeptember 25th, 2008They come from Europe, Asia and America. Couples unable to have their own children are finding a booming market for surrogate motherhood in India. But what happens when a baby is born that suddenly belongs to no one?
Surrogacy is soaring in Indiaby Alifiya KhanHindustan TimesSeptember 18th, 2008Surrogacy is soaring in India, with the number of surrogate mothers nearly doubling in a year. Besides affluent Indian couples, non-resident Indians and foreigners are heading for India.
Wanted: ‘Perfect’ donors for ‘perfect’ babiesby Mayank Tewari DNA: Daily News & AnalysisAugust 26th, 2008An investigation has revealed that an increasing number of infertile affluent couples in Mumbai have begun insisting on a ‘perfect’ female donor whose social profile and physical attributes are closest to them.
Surrogacy a $445 mn business in IndiaThe Economic TimesAugust 25th, 2008India is a leader in surrogacy because of the low cost of treatment and the ready availability of women willing to rent their wombs to childless couples.
Breadline or egg line?by Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesAugust 6th, 2008More women are trying to deal with the economic downturn by selling their eggs or signing up as surrogates.
Baby Business Boom More Women Apply as Economy Slipsby Monifa ThomasChicago Sun-TimesAugust 1st, 2008Some Chicago area fertility clinics say they've seen a surge in women inquiring about becoming egg donors or surrogates for infertile couples, apparently because of the recent economic downturn.
Reproductive Tourism a Growing Worry, Experts Sayby Michael KahnReutersJuly 24th, 2008Fertility experts say they must tackle a growing problem of reproductive tourism that puts women and babies at risk.
India Plans Regulations for Surrogate MotherhoodSify NewsJune 26th, 2008Concerned with an increasing number of foreigners coming to India to rent a womb, the government is planning to come out with regulations to ensure legal and medical rights to surrogate mothers and children born to them.
Outsourcing Labor [Quotes CGS's Marcy Darnovsky]by Joann KlimkiewiczThe Hartford CourantApril 24th, 2008While there's still a critical eye cast on surrogacy, the tenor of much of today's media coverage has changed from the circus-like days of Baby M to familiar territory that's found its way into the hive of popular culture.
Goodman on "The Globalization of Baby-Making"by Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesApril 11th, 2008Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist Ellen Goodman gives voice to unease about pregnancy outsourcing surrogacy, based on concerns about social justice and reproductive justice.
The Globalization of Baby-Makingby Ellen GoodmanThe Boston GlobeApril 11th, 2008Hundreds of couples are crossing borders in search of lower-cost ways to fill the family business. In turn, there's a new coterie of international workers who are gestating for a living.
The Curious Lives of Surrogatesby Lorraine Ali and and Raina KelleyNewsweekApril 7th, 2008Thousands of largely invisible American women have given birth to other people's babies. Many are married to men in the military.
What makes surrogacy like military service? by Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesApril 4th, 2008There are a number of similarities, starting with the fact that both involve putting your body and health on the line for a cause.
Report struggles with surrogacy issueby Hidekazu TanakaDaily YomiuriMarch 25th, 2008The Science Council of Japan's subcommittee on reproductive assistance medicine recently issued a report that said surrogate births should, in principle, be prohibited through legislation.
India Nurtures Business of Surrogate Motherhoodby Amelia GentlemanNew York TimesMarch 10th, 2008An enterprise known as reproductive outsourcing is a new but rapidly expanding business in India.
Who’s Biting Who?: Headlines on white surrogate for Asian coupleby Osagie ObasogieBiopolitical TimesMarch 10th, 2008Probably the oldest cliché in journalism is that the everyday ‘dog bites man story’ is not nearly as newsworthy as when the proverbial man who turns the tables and bites the dog. But when it comes to reproductive technologies, race is increasingly becoming the dividing line between journalists’ view of the ordinary and the extraordinary.
More media coverage of surrogacy outsourcingby Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesFebruary 21st, 2008The Today Show reports on the "rent-a-womb" boom in India.
What to Expect in ’08: The Business of Baby-Makingby Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesJanuary 21st, 2008What next for the notoriously under-regulated and highly lucrative assisted reproduction industry?
2007 in Review: The Baby Business Makes NewsGenetic CrossroadsDecember 21st, 2007The commerce of reproductive technology took some disturbing new twists this year.
Assisted Reproductive Technologies [PDF]Overview and Perspective Using a Reproductive Justice Frameworkby Emily GalpernDecember 10th, 2007This document, produced by the Gender and Justice Program, provides basic background information on assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and offers a perspective on ART using a reproductive justice framework.
Gay couple buys 'designer' sons from USby Peta HellardThe Daily Telegraph (Australia)October 14th, 2007A gay couple has travelled to the US to buy "designer twin boys" through a surrogate mother at a cost of as much as $133,000.
Oprah on Renting Wombs in India: “It’s beautiful”by Jamie D. BrooksBiopolitical TimesOctober 11th, 2007On Tuesday, viewers of the Oprah Winfrey Show were informed that Americans going to India to hire surrogates on the cheap is not exploitation. Rather, it’s a warm and fuzzy example of “women helping women.”
Women’s Mags Do Surrogacyby Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesSeptember 20th, 2007Two massive-circulation women’s lifestyle magazines – Glamour and Marie Claire – featured articles about contract pregnancy in their August issues.
[Letter to the Editor, New York Times Magazine] Your Gamete, Myselfby Marcy DarnovskyNew York Times MagazineAugust 26th, 2007Peggy Orenstein's article focuses on the experiences of women who conceive and bear children using other women's eggs. I hope that you will soon give the same sort of sympathetic attention to the women who are providing these eggs.
Birth Without the Bother?by Nicholas D. KristofNew York TimesJuly 23rd, 2007"So where do we regulate and draw the line? My vote is to allow genetic technologies aimed at combating disease or infertility, but to bar any effort that goes beyond the curative to enhance the germ line DNA of our offspring."
Gametes R Usby Marcy DarnovskyBiopolitical TimesJuly 19th, 2007In a New York Times Magazine piece last Sunday titled "Your Gamete, Myself," Peggy Orenstein writes at some length about the joys and angst of women who conceive and bear children using other women's eggs.
[UK] The white parents, an Indian baby and the new £3bn fertility tourismby  Ashling O’ConnorTimes OnlineApril 10th, 2007Wendy Duncan and her husband Brian are white. Nineteen months ago, the Lincolnshire housewife gave birth to a beautiful, healthy, Indian daughter.
Rent-a-womb in India fuels surrogate motherhood debateby Krittivas MukherjeeReutersFebruary 12th, 2007"Surrogate motherhood is among the latest in a long list of roles being outsourced to India, where rent-a-womb services are far cheaper than in the West."
Year in Review: Public secrets of the assisted reproduction industry (Part 1 of 5)Genetic CrossroadsDecember 14th, 2006Reproductive tourism: Class and conception in the global economy; The business that dares not speak its name; Selecting embryos for sex and arthritis
The Baby BusinessNew Book Focuses on Market for BabiesGenetic CrossroadsMarch 29th, 2006
CupidityThe EconomistFebruary 16th, 2006"Fertility treatment is a business with more than 1m customers and revenues of $3 billion a year in America alone. "
Race and the New Reproduction (Chapter 6 of Killing the Black Body)by Dorothy RobertsKilling the Black Body: Race, Reproduction and the Meaning of Liberty (New York; Pantheon, 1997)


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