Home Overview Press Room Blog Publications For Students about us
Search

About Surrogacy


Surrogacy is an arrangement in which a woman carries and delivers a child for another couple or person. Most commonly, the surrogate is impregnated with an embryo created with the egg of another woman. This is termed "gestational surrogacy." In "traditional surrogacy," the surrogate is also the child's genetic mother.

Surrogacy is often used to allow women who are unable to carry a child, but whose eggs are viable, to have a child genetically related to both her and her partner. In other cases, "intended parents" including gay couples use surrogates and third-party eggs to create a child genetically related to one member of the couple.

Some surrogacy arrangements involve no financial considerations between the parties involved, or compensate the surrogate only for expenses and, perhaps, lost wages involved with carrying the child. Increasingly, however, surrogacy is a commercial arrangement.

A number of countries and U.S. states prohibit commercial surrogacy arrangements, or limit compensation to expenses and lost wages. Others have no regulations and market-like conditions prevail.

In the U.S., costs for surrogacy are upwards of $100,000. This has led to the practice known as "reproductive tourism," in which prospective parents travel to avoid regulations or to save money. Some people seeking surrogates, especially Europeans, come to the U.S., but even more go to less developed regions where fertility practices are loosely regulated, if at all. India, perhaps the world's number one hub for cross-border medical treatment, has a reproductive tourism market with revenues estimated to be over half a billion dollars.

Industry supporters often defend this practice saying that women in developing countries can earn many times a normal salary by being a surrogate. However, women's health and human rights advocates and scholars raise serious concerns about how these arrangements take advantage of socially marginalized women, compromising their health and reproductive autonomy to make a profit. Some surrogate brokers, for example, routinely perform C-sections on all of their surrogates so that hiring parents can schedule to be present for the delivery. There have been several scandals involving the exploitation of surrogate mothers or fraud committed by brokers on would-be parents.

There may be legal issues after the birth of a child to a foreign surrogate. Questions of citizenship remain unresolved in several jurisdictions.


Nepal Bans Surrogate Births — Worry for Gay Israelis by JTAThe ForwardAugust 27th, 2015Nepal’s Supreme Court issued an injunction to stop surrogate pregnancies — joining Thailand and India — blocking future foreign intended parents seeking surrogates.
Právo: No One Wants Czech Child Born to Surrogate Mother [The Czech Republic]by CTKPrague Daily MonitorAugust 13th, 20151-year-old baby, diagnosed with congenital epilepsy and paralysis, left in institutional care in Czech Republic after intended parents and surrogate mother waive parental rights.
Thailand Bans Commercial Surrogacy for Foreigners, Singles[Thailand]by Penny Yi WangABC NewsAugust 7th, 2015After recent scandals involving foreign intending parents, Thailand has banned commercial surrogacy serving foreign clients.
Law Banning Commercial Surrogacy Takes Effect ThursdayBangkok PostJuly 29th, 2015Controversy continues to swirl around children born before Thailand's new law was passed this winter.
Outsourcing Motherhood: India's Reproductive Dystopiaby Namita KohliHindustan TimesJuly 26th, 2015Stories of DNA mismatches, abandoned babies, and unscrupulous practices at IVF clinics suggest that commercial surrogacy in the country is almost in a state of lawlessness.
The House of Hidden Mothers by Meera Syalby Aisha FarooqDESIblitz.com [UK]July 22nd, 2015A new novel explores issues of infertility and surrogacy that affect South Asian and British Asian society today.
Poverty Forces Workers' Wives to Become Surrogate Mothersby Neetu Chandra SharmaIndia TodayJuly 3rd, 201592 per cent of the surrogates in Delhi did not even have a copy of the contract and only 27 per cent of the clinics in Delhi and 11.4 per cent in Mumbai were party to the contract.
Surrogate Children Get Legal Recognition in Franceby Philippe SottoTimeJuly 3rd, 2015While surrogacy will remain banned in France, children born abroad through this practice will now be legally tied to their parents and will be granted birth certificates and French citizenship.
India's Draft Surrogacy Bill Proposes that Would-Be Parents Pay a Bondby Amrit DhillonSouth China Morning PostJuly 3rd, 2015The bill, if passed by parliament, will create a government agency to fix and monitor the standards of cleanliness, medical expertise and ethics of fertility clinics.
The Need for UK Surrogacy Law Reformby Rebecca CarrBioNewsJune 29th, 2015With 1000-2000 children being born to surrogates each year, a more robust framework is sorely needed to avoid the bitter legal battles that are increasingly arising.
Unregulated Surrogacy: Law Yet to Deliverby Vandana ShuklaThe Tribune [India]June 24th, 2015The Indian Council of Medical Research has to draft an appropriate, more equitable legislation that would look at the rights of the surrogate and her health vis-a-vis technology.
French Families Sue State to Recognize Surrogate Birthsby Philippe SottoAssociated PressJune 19th, 2015The case could change how surrogate births are handled in France, where infertility treatments are highly regulated and where many consider it unethical to make money off human reproduction.
Surrogate Parenting: A Worldwide Industry, Lacking Global Rulesby Ari ShapiroNPRJune 11th, 2015The bottom line: If you're an American in the market for a surrogate — and you have money to spend — you can do it.
Switzerland, Inter-Country Surrogacy and Public Policyby Michael Wells-GrecoBioNewsJune 8th, 2015The Swiss Federal Court refused to register a male couple, who are in a civil partnership, as the legal fathers of a child born following an inter-country surrogacy arrangement.
Human Factory Farming and the Campaign to Outlaw Surrogacyby Mirah RibenDissident VoiceMay 30th, 2015America is known as the most lax country for adoption and surrogacy. It has been called the Wild West for its lack of regulation of these practices. Is this a legacy we want to continue?
The Feminist History of Surrogacy: Should Pregnancy Give a Woman Rights Over a Baby? by GlosswitchNew Statesman May 22nd, 2015Our current thinking, with its impulse towards gender neutrality and the insistence that female reproduction isn't inherently different from its male counterpart, is flawed.
Unregistered Surrogate-Born Children Creating 'Legal Timebomb', Judge Warnsby Owen BowcottThe GuardianMay 18th, 2015Without a court-sanctioned parental order and improved international legal frameworks, children could end up “stateless and parentless.”
The Ethics of International Surrogacyby Anne SchiffThe Jerusalem PostMay 17th, 2015Sometimes it takes a tragedy to draw public attention to otherwise unconsidered problems. The recent earthquakes in Nepal, and their consequences for Israelis hiring surrogate mothers there, represent such an instance.
U.S. Couple Stuck in Mexico Due to Surrogacy Snafuby Rafael RomoCNNMay 8th, 2015An American couple who say they have been stuck in Mexico for weeks because officials there won't provide a birth certificate for their son believe a resolution could be close.
Israel Evacuates Surrogate Babies From Nepal but Leaves the Mothers Behindby Debra KaminTimeApril 28th, 2015The infants’ arrival completed the evacuation of 26 surrogate Israeli babies from Nepal, where a devastating earthquake killed more than 4,000.
Displaying 1-20 of 285  
Next >> 
Last Page » 
« Show Complete List » 


ESPAÑOL | PORTUGUÊS | Русский

home | overview | blog | publications| about us | donate | newsletter | press room | privacy policy

CGS • 1936 University Ave, Suite 350, Berkeley, CA 94704 • • (p) 1.510.665.7760 • (F) 1.510.665.8760