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Detailed Survey Results

US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. New Developments in Biotechnology—Background Paper: Public Perceptions of Biotechnology, OTA-BP-BA-45 (Washington: US Government Printing Office, 1987), as cited in National Center for Genome Resources, National Survey of Public and Stakeholders Attitudes and Awareness of Genetic Issues (Washington: NCGR, 1996)

This page reports results of public opinion surveys on the new human genetic and reproductive technologies. There is a bias towards Europe, Canada, and especially the United States, where more polli­ng data is available. All numbers are percents unless otherwise noted. Not all results were readily available, and are indicated by a hyphen.

May 2003 - Biotechnology Australia

January 2003 - Gallup

January 2003 - EOS Gallup Europe

January 2003 - Leger Marketing Candian poll

Late 2002 - Discovery Channel International Poll

October 2002 - Genetics and Public Policy Center

May 2002 - CBS News

May 2002 - Gallup

April 2002 - Stop Human Cloning

April 2002 - Coalition for the Advancement of Medical Research

April 2002 - Americans to Ban Cloning

February / March 2002 - The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press

February 2002 - Fox News

2002 - Biotechnology Australia

November / December 2001 - Ipsos-Reid

November 2001 - CNN/USA Today/Gallup

August 2001 - ABCNEWS/Beliefnet

August 2001 - Leger Marketing Canadian poll

July 2001 - Zogby

April / May 2001 - Biotechnology Australia

February 2001 - Time/CNN

Fall 2000 - System Three Scottish poll

March 2000 - PricewaterhouseCoopers Canadian poll

August 1999 - Novartis UK poll

July 1999 - Biotechnology Australia

February 1998 - CTV / Angus Reid

1997 - Harris Research UK poll

1996 - National Center for Genome Resources

1994 - Macer Japan and Australia poll

December 1993 - Time/CNN

1992 - March of Dimes

1992 - Macer Japan and New Zealand poll

1987 - Office of Technology Assessment


May 2003 - Biotechnology Australia

  • Survey population: 1000 adult Australians
  • Conducted by Market Attitude Research Services
Morally acceptable? 
Yes
No
Human cloning
-
87
Genetic testing of embryos
61
-
Correction of genetic disorders for embryos
79
-
Gene therapy to cure genetic diseases
84
-

Source:

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January 2003 - Gallup

  • Survey population: 1000 adult Americans
  • Date of survey: May 3 to 5, 2003
  • Margin of error: 3%
Cloning designed specifically to produce a child should be... 
Legal
Illegal
General population
11
86
- Men
15
-
- Women
7
-
- Age 18 to 29
15
-
- Age 30 to 49
10
-
- Age 50 to 64
11
-
- Age 65+
7
-

Source:

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January 2003 - EOS Gallup Europe

  • Survey population: 30 Countries
Tell me if you absolutely agree, rather agree, rather
disagree or absolutely disagree with…
The reproductive cloning, meaning the identical reproduction of human beings The therapeutic cloning, meaning the identical
reproduction of human cells

Agree
Disagree
Agree
Disagree
EU 15 average
 5
93
55
43
- Belgium
4
94
63
35
- Denmark
5
93
62
35
- Germany
6
94
43
57
- Greece
5
93
33
65
- Spain
7
87
79
18
- France
4
96
57
42
- Ireland
4
93
37
59
- Italy
4
95
65
33
- Luxembourg
4
95
56
42
- Netherlands
5
95
48
51
- Austria
3
94
39
54
- Portugal
10
85
72
22
- Finland
4
92
43
51
- Sweden
4
91
51
44
- United Kingdom
7
92
47
46

CC 13 average
12
81
44
47
- Bulgaria
8
80
47
36
- Cyprius
5
85
45
44
- Czech Republic
8
87
46
51
- Estonia
10
84
59
32
- Hungary
2
95
59
37
- Latvia
8
85
50
39
- Lithuania
9
71
43
36
- Malta
7
85
58
34
- Poland
8
83
48
42
- Romania
11
85
49
47
- Slovakia
18
81
51
49
- Slovenia
6
93
41
55
- Turkey
17
73
36
54

Tell me if you absolutely agree, rather agree, rather disagree or absolutely disagree with therapeutic cloning, meaning the identical
reproduction of human cells
EU15
CC13
Sex
Agree
Disagree
Agree
Disagree
- Female
51
46
44
47
- Male
59
39
44
47
Age
Agree
Disagree
Agree
Disagree
- 15-24
67
32
49
44
- 25-39
55
42
48
46
- 40-54
56
42
41
50
- > 55
47
49
39
48
Education
Agree
Disagree
Agree
Disagree
- < 15
50
45
34
53
- 16-20
52
47
46
47
- > 21
58
40
53
41
Professional-Occupation
Agree
Disagree
Agree
Disagree
- Self-Employed
56
41
41
52
- Employee (non-manual)
55
43
51
43
- Manual Worker
54
44
45
48
- Currently Not Working
54
43
42
48
Religion
Agree
Disagree
Agree
Disagree
- Christian
54
44
48
43
- Another Religion
51
45
36
60
- Non-Believer
58
38
53
43
Political Sympathy
Agree
Disagree
Agree
Disagree
- Left
59
40
49
45
- Right
51
47
44
48
- Middle
50
48
44
47
- Neither Left nor Right
55
40
44
48

Source:

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January 2003 - Leger Marketing Canadian poll

  • Survey population: 1500 Canadians
  • Date of survey: January 6 to 12, 2003
  • Margin of error: 2.5%

Support / Favor / Yes
Against / No
The media recently reported the birth of two cloned babies. In relation to this news, are you for or against
the cloning of human beings?
5
84
- Age 18-24
15
-
- Age 65+
2
93
- Atlantic provinces
4
83
- Quebec
5
89
- Ontario
5
83
- Prairies
4
85
- Alberta
6
82
- British Columbia
4
81
Are you for or against the cloning of human embryos for the creation of stem cells that could be used in transplants, organ replacements or in the prevention or treatment of diseases that are presently incurable?
53
32
- Age 18-24
66
-
- Atlantic provinces
50
36
- Quebec
58
37
- Ontario
55
29
- Prairies
46
34
- Alberta
50
33
- British Columbia
50
26
Would you personally like to be cloned?
4
93
- Men
6
90
- Women
1
96
- Atlantic provinces
1
96
- Quebec
3
96
- Ontario
4
93
- Prairies
1
95
- Alberta
7
88
- British Columbia
4
91
Do you think the federal government should legislate to...
ban all types of cloning that create
stems cells or living beings...
or only ban the cloning of living human beings?
Not banning any
cloning at all

30
52
7
- Atlantic provinces
29
55
5
- Quebec
42
44
6
- Ontario
25
55
8
- Prairies
29
50
8
- Alberta
28
51
11
- British Columbia
21
56
6

Source:

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Late 2002 - Discovery Channel International Poll

  • Survey population: Eight international countries
Parents should have the right to screen out embryos that are found to be carrying a hereditary disease, so that only those free from the condition are allowed to be born 
Agree
Disagree
- Poland
77
-
- Taiwan
73
-
- Turkey
80
-
- UK
55
33
- USA
42
44
Parents should be allowed to select an embryo in order to help cure a sibling of a serious disease
Agree
Disagree
- Brazil
90
-
- Denmark
62
-
- Mexico
66
-
- Poland
78
-
- Taiwan
84
-
- UK
54
-
- USA
48
-
Parents should be allowed to use gene technology to 'design' a baby to satisfy their personal, cultural or aesthetic desires
Agree
Disagree
- Brazil
-
82
- Denmark
-
97
- Mexico
-
76
- Poland
~18
~67
- Taiwan
-
~67
- Turkey
43
53
- UK
-
92
- USA
-
87
If you were ill, would you be willing to receive gene therapy; that is to have treatment that alters and replaces your genes?
Agree
Disagree
- Brazil
34
-
- Poland (only if the disease was life threatening)
71
-
If you were being treated with an experimental treatment like gene therapy and you found out that people had died from the treatment, would you continue?
Agree
Disagree
- Brazil
-
47
- Denmark
12
-
- Mexico
-
60
-Taiwan
39
-
-UK
16
-
-USA
16
-
If you could clone a member of your family when they died, would you?
Agree
Disagree
-Denmark
-
97
- Turkey
29
-
- UK
-
93
- USA
-
88
Governments should ban cloning?
Agree
Disagree
- Denmark
85
-
- Mexico
~50
-
- Taiwan
79
-
- Turkey
~50
-
- UK
79
-
- USA
77
22
There should be one licensed laboratory in the world that could start human cloning trials under strict international supervision?
Agree
Disagree
- UK
-
68
- Denmark
-
67
- USA
-
64
- Mexico
~50
-
- Taiwan
~50
-
- Turkey
~50
-
- Brazil
~50
-
- Poland
~50
~50
Cloning another human being can give childless couples the option of having a son or daughter even if they are completely infertile. Would you clone yourself if the option was available to you?
Agree
Disagree
- Brazil
-
80
- Denmark
-
90
- Mexico
31
-
- Poland
26
-
- UK
-
87
- USA
-
85
Do you believe/think that a human will be successfully cloned somewhere in the world?
it has already happened somewhere in secret
it will happen in the future, the next five years
it will happen within a hundred years
it will never happen
- Brazil
-
-
-
~30
- Denmark
-
-
19
-
- Mexico
47
-
-
-
- Taiwan
55
-
-
-
- UK
-
41
-
-
- USA
-
34
-
-

Source:

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October 2002 - Genetics and Public Policy Center

  • Survey population: 1211 adult Americans
  • Date of survey: October 15 to 29, 2002
  • Conducted by: Princeton Data Source
  • Margin of error: 3%
How much have you heard or read about... 
Great deal / yes
Something / not much
Nothing / no
Genetic engineering
23
57
20
Cloning
38
53
8
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)*
24
-
76
As far as you know, is it scientifically possible today to...
Yes
No
Don't know
use genetic testing during pregnancy to find out whether the baby will develop a disease such as sickle cell disease or cystic fibrosis?
70
11
19**
use genetic testing during pregnancy to find out whether the baby will have a high IQ or intelligence?
19
52
29
use genetic engineering to change a baby’s genetic make-up before it is born to prevent it from having a genetic disease?
23
35
43
use genetic engineering to change a baby’s genetic make-up before it is born so it is smarter, stronger, or better looking?
16
52
32
create a clone, or genetic copy, of animals like cows or sheep?
90
4
5
create a clone, or genetic copy, of a
human being?
46
33
20
Do you believe anyone has actually cloned a human already?***
48
38
14
Do you approve or disapprove of ...
Approve
Disapprove
Don't know
the use ofgenetic testing during pregnancy to find out whether the baby will develop a serious genetic disease?
66
27
7
the use of genetic testing during pregnancy to find out whether the baby will have desirable characteristics such as strength or high intelligence?
20
74
5
scientists working on ways to clone animals?
37
55
8
scientists working on ways to clone humans?
18
76
5
Would you approve or disapprove if parents were offered a way to ...
Approve
Disapprove
Don't know
use PGD to make sure their baby does not have a serious genetic disease
74
22
2
use PGD to make sure their baby does not have a tendency to develop a disease like
cancer when he or she is an adult
60
33
6
use PGD to make sure their baby would be a good match to donate his or her blood or
tissue to a brother or sister who is sick
and needs a transplant
69
25
5
use PGD to choose the sex of their child
28
68
4
use PGD to make sure their baby has desirable characteristics such as high intelligence and strength
22
72
5
change their own genes in order to prevent their children from having a genetic disease?
59
34
7
change their own genes in order to have children who would be smarter, stronger, or better looking?
20
76
5
As far as you know, does the government...
Yes
No
Don't know
regulate the quality and safety of PGD, or not?^
4
8
11**
regulate the quality and safety of genetic engineering, or not?
30
34
36
have any regulations to limit the cloning of humans, or not?
53
25
23
Do you think the government’s regulations to limit ____ should be...^^
more strict
About right
less strict
Should not regulate at all
Not sure what regulations should be
the cloning of humans
1
2
0
1
1
genetic engineering
11
10
1
3
5
the cloning of humans
28
14
1
3
7
Do you think the government should...
Yes
No
Don't know
regulate the quality and safety of PGD, or not?
62
25
12
regulate the quality and safety of genetic engineering, or not?
71
22
6
have regulations to limit the cloning of humans, or not?
84
11
5

* presented as yes/no question
** includes refusals
*** Based on those who say human cloning is possible; n=570
^ applies only to the 24% who had heard of PGD
^^ applies only to those who believe the government already regulates

For extensive tabulation by gender, age, education, race/ethnicity, parental status, 'basic orientation,' religion, political affiliation, and experience with IVF, prenatal tests, genetic tests, and genetic disease, see
http://dnapolicy-content.labvelocity.com/pdfs/7/27377.pdf

Source:

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May 2002 - CBS News

  • Survey population: 647 adult Americans
  • Date of survey: May 13 to May 14, 2002
  • Margin of error: 4%

Yes
No
Is it possible to clone human beings?
76
18
Should scientists be allowed to clone humans?
11
85

Source:

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May 2002 - Gallup

  • Survey population: 1012 adult Americans
  • Date of survey: May 6 to May 9, 2002
  • Margin of error: 3%
Do you favor or oppose each of the following? How about...
Approve
Disapprove
No opinion
cloning of endangered species to keep them from becoming extinct
38
58
4
cloning of dogs, cats, or other animals that people keep as pets
15
82
3
cloning of human organs or body parts that can then be used in medical transplants
59
37
4
cloning of human embryos for use in medical research*
34
61
5
- men
40
-
-
- women
29
-
-
- attend church weekly
21
72
-
- attend church nearly weekly
30
66
-
- attend church less often
45
50
-
- east US
37
58
-
- midwest
32
61
-
- south
27
68
-
- west
42
54
-
- "pro-choice"
50
45
-
- "pro-life"
20
77
-
cloning of human cells from adults for use in medical research
51
44
5
cloning that is designed specifically to result in the birth of a human being
8
90
2

Regardless of whether or not you think it should be legal, for each one, please tell me whether you personally believe that in general it is morally acceptable or morally wrong. How about …
Morally acceptable
Morally wrong
Depends / not a moral issue / no opinion
cloning animals
29
66
5
cloning humans
7
90
3
medical research using stem cells obtained from human embryos
52
39
9

* The poll shows no partisan differences within the public in its reaction to cloning human embryos for research.

Source:

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April 2002 - Stop Human Cloning

  • Survey population: Americans
think it is wrong to create human embryos for medical research
59

Source:

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April 2002 - Coalition for the Advancement of Medical Research (advocates research cloning)

  • Survey population: 1,022 adult Americans
  • Date of survey: April 18 to April 21, 2002
  • Conducted by: Opinion Research Corporation International
  • Margin of error: 3%

Support
Oppose
Don't know
favor the government allowing scientists to do therapeutic cloning research to produce stem cells for treating life-threatening diseases*
68
26
6
- men
71
-
-
- women
65
-
-
- had at least a college degree
73
-
-
- had only a high school degree
64
-
-
want to outlaw the research
< 30
52
-

* This level of support was reached when questioners were given a list of diseases—diabetes, Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury—that could be treated with stem cells produced by the research.

Mary Cannon of Stop Cloning Now argued that this poll is flawed because 53% of respondents said they were not opposed to reproductive cloning. Other polls suggest 85%-90% of Americans oppose reproductive cloning.

Sources:

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April 2002 - Americans to Ban Cloning

  • Survey population: 807 adult Americans
  • Date of survey: April 13 to April 15, 2002
  • Conducted by: The Polling Company
  • Margin of error: 3.5%
Just last week, President Bush stated that he is opposed to both reproductive cloning, that is cloning with the goal of creating a child, and research cloning, which involves the creation of cloned human embryos for the purpose of destroying them to retrieve stem cells from the embryos for medical experiments.*
Strongly agree
Somewhat agree
Don't know / unsure / depends
Somewhat disagree
Strongly disagree
48
15
8
13
16
Person 1 supports human cloning to allow science and research to pursue cures to diseases like cancer, Alzheimer's, diabetes and Parkinson's. Person 1 is opposed to cloning for creation of human beings, but supports cloning for creation of human embryos, which would be destroyed when used for medical research.

Person 2 agrees that it is important to use science and research to cure diseases like cancer, Alzheimer's, diabetes and Parkinson's, but says that there are more ethical ways, like through the use of adult stem cells. Person 2 says it is wrong to create human embryos for the specific purpose of destroying them, even in medical research.**

Strongly agree person 1
Somewhat agree person 1
Don't know / both / neither
Somewhat agree person 2
Strongly agree person 2
14
12
15
21
38
Would you be more or less likely to vote for a candidate for office if you knew he or she supported making legal the cloning of human embryos for medical experimentation?***
Much more likely
Somewhat more likely
No difference / do not know
Somewhat less likely
Much less likely
10
11
19
16
44

* With the exception of singles with household earnings over $50K, all demographic groups are more likely to agree than disagree. Women are ten points more likely than men to support the President’s position (68%, compared to 58%). Those most likely to support the President’s statement include middle-income households (between $30K and $49K; 71%), those in the South Central region of the country (71%), 25-34 year olds (69%), and Americans with children under age 18 (66%). Marriage intensifies support as well. Over two-thirds (67%) married Americans agree with the President, as do 70% of married women. Even those groups least likely to agree with the President, single men, and singles making over $50K, show approximately half in agreement (51%, and 46%, respectively).

** Women are more likely than men to support the conservative position on cloning (62%, compared to 55%). African Americans (65%), those with children (65%), married individuals (64%), and New Englanders (63%) are the most likely to agree with "person 2." Over half of young Americans age 18-24 (56%) also support "person 2." Married women are the most likely to show their support for the conservative position (69%; 51% "strongly agree"), and differentiate themselves from single women, of which a smaller majority, 53%, agree. Four-in-ten (40%) of those who oppose the President’s statement in the earlier question also indicated they agree with "person 2," the conservative position on human cloning for medical research

*** African-Americans seem willing to register their opposition to human cloning at the ballot box (72%), and are less likely to vote for a candidate that supports cloning human embryos for medical experimentation, by a far higher margin than Whites (59%). Over two-thirds (68%) of women said they would be less likely to vote for a candidate that supported legal cloning of human embryos for medical experimentation, compared to 52% of men. An additional 39% of those who actually oppose the President’s statement in the earlier question, and 22% of those who side with legalizing human cloning for medical experimentation (person 1), are still less likely to vote for a candidate that supports human cloning for medical experiments. Fifteen percent of those that disagree with the President, and 20% of those who side with "person 1," said the issue makes "no difference" in their vote. Men were statistically more likely than women to say the issue makes "no difference" in how they would vote (15%, compared to 10%). Married women (70%), and those over 55 (65%) are also among the most likely to oppose candidates that support cloning human embryos for medical experimentation. Those most likely to vote for a candidate that supports legalized cloning of human embryos include 18-24 year olds (35%), singles with income over $50K (29%), and married men (28%).

Source:

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February / March 2002 - The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press

  • Survey population: 2002 adult Americans
  • Date of survey: February 25 to March 10, 2002
  • Conducted in association with the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life
  • Margin of error: 3.5%

Favor
Oppose
Don't know / Refused
Do you favor or oppose scientific experimentation on the cloning of human beings?
17
77
6
- White evangelical Protestant
8
88
4
- White mainline Protestant
15
79
6
- White Catholic
18
75
7
- Black Protestant
13
81
6
- Secular
33
56
11


the belief that the science is not yet safe enough but could be in the future the belief that it is morally wrong Both / other / don't know / refused
(If opposed) Is your objection to research on human cloning based more on ...
19
72
9
- White evangelical Protestant
10
81
9
- White mainline Protestant
23
67
10
- White Catholic
19
72
9
- Black Protestant
17
78
5
- Secular
32
57
11

Source:

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February 2002 - Fox News

  • Survey population: 900 registered American voters
  • Date of survey: February 12 to February 13, 2002
  • Margin of error: 3%
As you may know, scientists have made advances in cloning, where they can reproduce a whole animal from a single cell. Do you think it is acceptable to use cloning to ...
Acceptable Not acceptable Don't know
reintroduce extinct species?
20
72
8
reproduce endangered species?
29
64
7
reproduce livestock?
23
71
6
reproduce a beloved pet such as a dog or cat?
12
84
4
reproduce humans?
7
89
4

Yes
No
Not sure
(Asked of pet owners) If a company announced that a perfect copy of your pet could be made when the pet got old or died, would you order a copy or not?
6
92
2
How likely do you think it is that somewhere in the world a human has already been secretly cloned?
Very likely
Somewhat likely
Not very likely
Not at all likely
Not sure
30
26
20
18
6

This poll has the greatest number of repeated surveys: four since 1997. Follow the link below for older data.

Source:

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2002 - Biotechnology Australia

  • Survey population: 1000 adult Australians
  • Conducted by Market Attitude Research Services
Morally acceptable?
Yes
No
Human cloning
-
82
Genetic testing of embryos
54
-
Correction of genetic disorders for embryos
74
-
Gene therapy to cure genetic diseases
77
-

Source:

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November / December 2001 - Ipsos-Reid

  • Survey population: 1000 adult Americans
  • Date of survey: November 30 to December 2, 2001
  • Margin of error: 3.1%
If you had to choose, which comes closest to your preference:
A complete ban on all research into human cloning
without exception
A ban on human cloning of full-grown humans,
while still allowing research on cloned embryos, to learn more about certain diseases
Oppose any law that restricts research into human cloning
Not sure
All
33
39
21
6
Gender
- male
30
40
25
4
- female
36
39
18
7
Age
- 18-34
33
41
22
3
- 35-54
32
41
22
5
- 55+
36
35
20
9
Income
- < $25,000
41
31
20
9
- $25-$50,000
30
42
24
4
- > $50,000
30
46
21
3
Region
- Northeast
32
39
26
3
- Midwest
34
38
21
8
- South
35
37
20
8
- West
31
45
21
3
Children
- have children
35
40
19
6
- no children
32
39
23
6
Education
- high school or less
39
31
23
8
- some college
34
39
21
6
- college degree
27
50
20
3
Employment
- full time
29
44
22
5
- part time
38
39
17
6
- not employed
40
35
19
6
- retired
38
30
24
8
Marital status
- married
36
39
19
5
- other
30
39
24
6
Race
- white
33
40
21
6
- other
33
37
25
4
Party affiliation
- Republican
38
41
17
4
- Democrat
25
41
27
6
- Independent
46
29
15
10

Source:

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November 2001 - CNN / USA Today / Gallup

  • Survey population: 507 to 518 adult Americans
  • Date of survey: November 26 to November 27, 2001
  • Margin of error: 3% to 5%

Approve
Disapprove
No opinion
Do you approve or disapprove of cloning that is designed specifically to result in the birth of a human being?
9
88
3
Do you approve or disapprove of cloning that is not designed specifically to result in the birth of a human being, but is designed to aid medical research that might find treatments for certain diseases?
54
41
5

Source:

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August 2001 - ABCNEWS/Beliefnet

  • Survey population: 1024 adult Americans
  • Date of survey: August 8 to August 12, 2001
  • Conducted by: TNS Intersearch
  • Margin of error: 3%

Legal
Illegal
Do you think it should be legal or illegal to clone humans in the United States?*
11
87
- men
16
82
- women
6
93
- < $25,000/year
8
92
- > $100,000/year
20
80
- evangelical Protestant
3
95
- Catholic
8
91
- non-evangelical Protestant
15
83
- no religion
22
77

Legal
Illegal
Do you think human cloning for medical treatments should be legal or illegal in the United States?**
33
63
- men
41
56
- women
27
70
- < $25,000/year
23
75
- > $100,000/year
55
44
- evangelical Protestant
18
79
- Catholic
32
65
- non-evangelical Protestant
39
53
- no religion
53
46

Legal
Illegal
Do you think it should be legal or illegal to clone animals in the United States***
37
59
- men
49
47
- women
25
71
- < $25,000/year
17
81
- > $100,000/year
64
34
- evangelical Protestant
19
79
- Catholic
36
61
- non-evangelical Protestant
43
54
- no religion
55
40

More likely
Less likely
Does not affect opinion
Human cloning for medical treatments is legal in some other countries, such as England. Does this make you more likely or less likely to think it should be legal in the United States, or doesn't it affect your opinion on the issue one way or the other?
7
10
82

What's had the most influence on your opinion on the issue of cloning?
Religious beliefs
Non-religious beliefs
Education
The news
Personal experience
Family and friends
Something else
36

17
16
15
4
3
9

* Prefaced by "Scientists say it's also possible to clone humans, using basic genetic material from one person to produce a child with the exact same genetic makeup."

** Prefaced by "Some scientists want to use human cloning for medical treatments only. They would produce a fertilized egg, or human embryo, that's an exact genetic copy of a person, and then take cells from this embryo to provide medical treatments for that person. Supporters say this could lead to medical breakthroughs. Opponents say it could lead to the creation of a cloned person, because someone could take an embryo that was cloned for medical treatments and use it to produce a child."

*** Prefaced by "Scientists have cloned animals, using basic genetic material from one animal to produce an offspring with the exact same genetic makeup. Supporters say cloning animals can lead to advances in medicine and agriculture. Opponents say cloning animals is morally wrong and may produce offspring with genetic abnormalities."

For both animal and therapeutic cloning, supporters say medical breakthroughs could result. Opponents of animal cloning say it's morally wrong and may produce offspring with genetic abnormalities; opponents of therapeutic cloning say it could lead to the creation of a cloned human.

Source:

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August 2001 - Leger Marketing Canadian poll

  • Survey population: 1508 Canadian adults
  • Date of survey: August 2 to 13, 2001
  • Margin of error: 2.5%

Support / Favor / Yes
Against / No
Are you for or against the cloning of human beings?
8
89
- Women
-
92
- Age 55 - 64
-
95
- Maritimes
8
89
- Quebec
8
91
- Ontario
10
87
- Prairies
6
90
- Alberta
4
94
- British Columbia
8
86
Are you for or against the cloning of human embryos that would allow for the creation of stem cells that could be used in transplants, organ replacements, and for treatment of diseases that are currently incurable?
55
41
- Men
62
-
- Women
-
50
- Age 18 to 24
66
-
- Age 55 to 64
-
48
- Income $20,000 to $40,000 / year
-
45
- Income $40,000 to $60,000 / year
63
-
- Students
65
-
- Maritimes
46
48
- Quebec
54
44
- Ontario
56
40
- Prairies
57
38
- Alberta
54
43
- British Columbia
63
33
Would you personally like to be cloned?
4
94
- Men
7
-
- Women
2
-
- Age 35 or less
8
-
- Age 55 or more
0.3
-
- Maritimes
4
95
- Quebec
4
95
- Ontario
6
93
- Prairies
4
96
- Alberta
1
98
- British Columbia
3
95
Do you believe that human cloning will take place in the next 20 years?
77
18
- Men
80
-
- Professionals
83
-
- Maritimes
71
22
- Quebec
77
18
- Ontario
78
19
- Prairies
80
17
- Alberta
76
18
- British Columbia
80
16

Source:

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July 2001 - Zogby

  • Survey population: 1,209 adult Americans
  • Date of survey: July 2 to July 15, 2001
  • Conducted by: Zogby International
  • Margin of error: 3%

opposed
supportive
Regarding cloning human beings, are you*
90**
8
- Democrats
87
-
- Republicans
94
-

yes
no
Should the government closely regulate all cloning research in the US?
52
-
Should all cloning research be banned?
40
-

* Also overwhelmingly opposed are 18-29 year-olds (82% opposed), 50-64 year-olds (89% opposed), high school graduates (92% opposed) and college graduates (89% opposed).

** 82% are strongly opposed

Source:

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April / May 2001 - Biotechnology Australia

  • Survey population: 1001 adult Australians
  • Date of survey: April 23 to May 6, 2001
  • Conducted by Millward Brown
Genetic modification of human cells is...
Yes
No
acceptable
44
42
beneficial
55
25
Testing embryos for pre-disposition to disease is...
Definitely agree
Tend to agree
Tend to disagree
Definitely disagree
Useful to society?
40
42
7
8
A risky application for society?
23
37
21
12
Morally acceptable?
25
40
15
13

Strongly agree
Agree
Niether
Disagree
Strongly disagree
The cloning of humans cannot be stopped
29
7
3
34
24

Source:

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February 2001 - Time/CNN

  • Survey population: 1016 Americans
  • Date of survey: February 7 to February 8, 2001

good idea / yes
bad idea / no
Do you think it is a good idea or a bad idea to clone animals such as sheep?
29
67
In general, do you think it is a good idea or a bad idea to clone human beings?
7
90
Do you think it is against God's will to clone human beings, or don't you feel this way?
69
23
Do you think scientists should be allowed to clone human beings or don't you think so?
10
88
Do you think the clone of a deceased person would have the same personality as that person?
10
74
If you had a chance, would you clone yourself or wouldn't you do that?
5
93
Do you think each of the following justifies creating a human clone or don't you think so?
good idea / yes
bad idea / no
- To produce copies of humans whose vital organs can be used to save the lives of others
28
68
- To save the life of the person who is being cloned
21
74
- To help infertile couples to have children without having to adopt
20
76
- To allow parents to have a twin child at a later date if they wanted to
10
88
- To allow parents who have lost a child to create a clone of the child they lost
10
88
- To allow gay couples to have children using only their own genes
10
86
- To create genetically superior human beings
6
92
If scientists could clone the following people, do you think they should do so?
good idea / yes
bad idea / no
Albert Einstein
18
81
Abraham Lincoln
14
85
Isaac Newton
14
84
Beethoven
12
87
Michael Jordan
10
89
Humphrey Bogart
6
92
(Asked of those who think cloning human beings is a bad idea) What is the main reason you are against the cloning of human beings?
Because of your religious beliefs
Because cloning interferes with human distinctiveness and individuality
Because cloning could be used for questionable purposes like breeding a superior race or clone armies
Because the technology involved is dangerous
34
22
22
14
Do you think it will be possible to create a human clone in the next 10 years, 20 years, 50 years or more, or don't you think it will ever be possible to create a human clone?
10 years
20 years
50 years or more
Never be possible
45
23
10
15

Source:

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Fall 2000 - System Three Scottish poll

  • Survey population: 1001 Scots
  • Date of survey: Fall 2000

agree
disagree
Are opposed to the creation of "designer babies" for any reason other than to stop hereditary illnesses.*
~ 90
-
- males
-
10
- females
-
6
- age 18-24
-
16
Feel genetic modification of embryos to achieve either a male or female child was wrong in all circumstances.
48
8
- age 18-24
38
-
- age 35-44
40
-
- age 55-64
57
-
- age 65+
67
-
Prepared to accept "born-to-order" babies for medical reasons.
42
-

* Males were slightly more in favour of the creation of "designer babies" than females, as were those in the lower age brackets.

Sources:

  • Valerie Hannah, "Scots reject creation of designer babies," The Herald (UK) (November 6, 2000)

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March 2000 - PricewaterhouseCoopers Canadian poll

  • Survey population: 2,580 Canadians aged 15 and older
  • Date of survey: March 2000
  • Margin of error: 1.9%
Are opposed to scientists making a genetically identical copy of a human being.*
~ 90
Find it very or somewhat acceptable to clone human organs for transplants or tissue required to treat medical conditions.
75
Find cloning of human skin or other organs such as hearts and livers acceptable.
> 80
Find genetic engineering to preselect the sex of an unborn child unacceptable.
< 80
Find genetic engineering to change the eye colour or other physical features of an unborn child unacceptable.
74
Find it acceptable for scientists to use biotechnology to cure an inherited medical condition or to decrease the risk of illness.
> 50

* When they explained why they opposed the cloning of whole human beings, about 42 percent said it was "simply unacceptable," and just less than 22 percent said cloning was unacceptable because it is too dangerous and has unknown consequences for humans. Of the 10 percent of Canadians who did not oppose cloning of entire human beings, most were men.

Source:

  • "Canadians Support Cloning of Human Organs, Survey Says," PricewaterhouseCoopers (February 20, 2001)
    http://www.newswire.ca/releases/February2001/20/c5067.html
  • Heather Scoffield, "Canadians Favor Limited Use of Clones for Emergencies Only, Survey Finds," The Globe and Mail (June 19, 2000)

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August 1999 - Novartis UK poll

  • Survey population: 991 UK adults aged 15+
  • Date of survey: August 19 to August 24, 1999
  • Conducted by: MORI
Which, if any, of the following do you support and which do you oppose?
Support
Oppose

Don't know

Cloning and growing human cells
28
60
11

Source:

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July 1999 - Biotechnology Australia

  • Survey population: 1001 Australian adults
  • Date of survey: July 1999
  • Conducted by: Yann Campbell Hoare Wheeler
Genetic modification of human cells is...
Yes
No
acceptable
51
41
beneficial
65
27
Testing embryos for pre-disposition to disease is...
Definitely agree
Tend to agree
Tend to disagree
Definitely disagree
useful to society
44
43
5
6
a risky application for society
28
29
24
13
morally acceptable
20
49
15
12

Source:

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February 1998 - CTV / Angus Reid

  • Survey population: 1000 Canadian adults
  • Date of survey: February 9 to February 12, 2001
  • Margin of error: 3.2%

Agree
Disagree
Don't Know
I fear that cloning human beings will be used wrongly by people who only want to create a master race.
73
25
2
- age 18-34
69
29
2
- age 35-54
75
23
2
- age 55+
75
23
2
- male
64
33
2
- female
81
16
2
- less than high school education
73
23
3
- high school degree
72
25
2
- post secondary education
73
25
2
- university degree
73
25
2
- < $25,000 income
77
21
2
- $25,000-$55,000 income
71
27
1
- > $55,000 income
73
25
2

Agree
Disagree
Don't Know
I think that cloning human beings for such things as replacement body parts, transplants and experimenting with new drugs, if carefully regulated, is not a bad thing.
46
53
2
- age 18-34
57
42
2
- age 35-54
40
58
2
- age 55+
40
59
1
- male
51
47
2
- female
40
58
1
- less than high school education
46
54
-
- high school degree
48
49
3
- post secondary education
44
54
1
- university degree
45
54
2
- < $25,000 income
46
52
2
- $25,000-$55,000 income
46
53
1
- > $55,000 income
43
55
2

Agree
Disagree
Don't Know
I agree with people who say that cloning should never be allowed to happen because it means that we are playing God.
65
33
2
- age 18 - 34
60
38
2
- age 35 - 54
66
32
2
- age 55+
67
30
3
- male
55
43
2
- female
74
24
2
- less than high school education
66
31
3
- high school degree
70
28
2
- post secondary education
69
29
2
- university degree
56
42
2
- <$25,000 income
65
31
4
- $25,000 - $55,000 income
68
30
2
- > $55,000 income
59
39
1

Agree
Disagree
Don't Know
I think people should have the freedom, in the future, to clone themselves and have a baby exactly like themselves to raise as their own child.
12
87
1
- age 18-34
14
86
-
- age 35-54
11
87
1
- age 55+
12
86
2
- male
17
82
1
- female
8
91
1
- less than high school education
17
80
3
- high school degree
13
86
1
- post secondary education
11
89
1
- university degree
12
88
-
- <$25,000 income
14
84
2
- $25,000-$55,000 income
13
86
1
- >$55,000 income
12
88
-

Source:

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1997 - Harris Research UK poll

Human cloning should never be allowed and all research should be stopped.
72
Cloning research should continue under strict controls and a decision taken later.
19
Cloning should be allowed when it becomes possible.
4

Source:

  • Wellcome Trust, Public Perspectives on Human Cloning (London: Wellcome Trust, 1998)
  • The Independent (UK) (March 7, 1997)

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1996 - National Center for Genome Resources

  • Survey population: 1039 Americans
How do you feel about scientists changing the makeup of human cells to...
Approve
cure a usually fatal disease (B)
85
reduce the risk of a usually fatal disease (C)
84
prevent/stop children from inheriting a usually fatal disease (D)
86
prevent/stop children from inheriting a usually nonfatal disease (E)
72
improve the physical characteristics children would inherit (F)
35

Yes, it is wrong
On balance, do you feel that changing the genetic makeup of human cells is morally wrong, or not? (A)
22
- less than high school education
38
- college graduates
16

Approve
How do you feel about scientists changing the makeup of human cells to improve the physical characteristics children would inherit?
35
- less than high school education
61
- high school graduates
40
- some college education
27
- college graduates
28

Survey of leadership opinions*


A
is wrong

B
approve

C
approve
D
approve
E
approve
F
approve
Doctors
8
90
89
90
79
28
Patient representatives
8
97
96
94
84
25
Religious leaders
10
92
88
88
76
20
Biotech industry leaders
10
91
86
86
79
18
Media leaders
4
94
88
86
82
16
Policy makers
9
87
86
89
71
16
Insurers
6
93
87
88
80
14
Genetics scientists
0
96
96
82
63
12
General public
22
85
85
88
71
35

* These groups were chosen and surveyed by a variety of methods. See source for details.

Source:

  • National Center for Genome Resources, National Survey of Public and Stakeholders Attitudes and Awareness of Genetic Issues (Washington: NCGR, 1996)

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1994 - Macer Japan and Australia poll

  • Survey population: 352 Japanese and 201 Australians
How do you feel about scientists changing the genetic makeup of human cells to...
Approve
Don't approve
Don't know
cure a usually fatal disease, such as cancer
-
-
-
- Australia
89
8
3
- Japan
83
5
12
reduce the risk of a usually fatal disease later in life
-
-
-
- Australia
81
11
8
- Japan
75
6
19
prevent/stop children from inheriting a usually fatal disease
-
-
-
- Australia
87
7
6
- Japan
80
4
16
prevent/stop children from inheriting a usually nonfatal disease, such as diabetes
-
-
-
- Australia
79
13
8
- Japan
62
17
21
improve the physical characteristics children would inherit
-
-
-
- Australia
28
63
9
- Japan
28
51
21
improve the intelligence level children would inherit
-
-
-
- Australia
27
62
11
- Japan
26
54
20
make people more ethical
-
-
-
- Australia
34
44
22
- Japan
24
53
23

Source:

  • Darryl Macer, Bioethics for the People (Christchurch, NZ: Eubios Ethics Institute, 1994)

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December 1993 - Time/CNN

  • Survey population: 500 Americans
  • Date of survey: December 2, 1993
  • Conducted by: Yankelovich Partners
  • Margin of error: 4.5%
Do you approve or disapprove of the use of genetic engineering to...
Approve
Disapprove
Not sure
cure a disease
79
16
5
improve a person's physical appearance
25
71
4
improve a person's intelligence
34
62
4
establish embryo banks from which prospective parents could select a child with genetic characteristics they desire
18
78
4
make it possible for nations to produce large numbers of individuals with genetically desirable traits
8
88
4

Good thing
Bad thing
Not sure
In general, do you think cloning is a good think or a bad thing to do?
14
75
11

Yes, it is wrong
Do not feel this way
Not sure
Do you think cloning is morally wrong, or don't you think this way?
58
31
11

Yes, against God's will
Do not feel this way
Not sure
Do you think cloning is against God's will, or don't you think this way?
63
26
11

Source:

  • Philip Elmer-Dewitt, "The Genetic Revolution: New technology enables us to improve on nature. How far should we go?" Time (Vol. 143, No. 2, January 17, 1994)

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1992 - March of Dimes

  • Survey population: ~1000 Americans
  • Conducted by: Harris Research
How do you feel about scientists changing the makeup of human cells to...
Approve
Disapprove
Don't Know
cure a usually fatal disease
87
12
1
reduce the risk of a usually fatal disease
78
19
3
prevent/stop children from inheriting a usually fatal disease
84
13
3
prevent/stop children from inheriting a usually nonfatal disease
66
32
3
improve the physical characteristics children would inherit
43
54
3
improve the intelligence level children would inherit
42
55
3

Source:

  • March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, Genetic Testing and Gene Therapy: National Survey Findings (White Plains, NY: March of Dimes, September 1992)

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1992 - Macer Japan and New Zealand poll

  • Survey population: 533 Japanese and 2034 New Zealanders
Is genetic manipulation of human cells acceptable to you for any reason?
Acceptable
Unacceptable
- Japan
26
74
- New Zealand
43
58
Could genetic manipulation of human cells provide benefits for your country?
No benefit
Benefit
- Japan
62
38
- New Zealand
52
48
Could genetic manipulation of human cells present serious risks or hazards in your country?
No risk
Risk
- Japan
17
83
- New Zealand
26
74

The Japanese were queried by a mailed questionnaire, which elicited a 26% response rate. Face-to-face interviews were used in New Zealand.

Source:

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1987 - Office of Technology Assessment


Yes, it is wrong
On balance, do you feel that changing the genetic makeup of human cells is morally wrong, or not?
42

Approve
How do you feel about scientists changing the makeup of human cells to improve the physical characteristics children would inherit?
44
How do you feel about scientists changing the makeup of human cells to cure a usually fatal disease
84

Source:

  • US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. New Developments in Biotechnology—Background Paper: Public Perceptions of Biotechnology, OTA-BP-BA-45 (Washington: US Government Printing Office, 1987), as cited in National Center for Genome Resources, National Survey of Public and Stakeholders Attitudes and Awareness of Genetic Issues (Washington: NCGR, 1996)

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